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Lecture 1

PS287 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Gender Dysphoria, Male Privilege, Gender Role


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS287
Professor
Nicky Newton
Lecture
1

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Chapter 1: Introduction
-Sex is one of the first categories learned by children because: sex only has two
categories, the categories are mutually exclusive, and we are immediately exposed to
members of both categories
Definition of Terms
Sex: refers to the biological categories of female and male (genes, hormones)
oRelatively stable and not easy to change
Gender: distinguished from one another by a set of psychological features and
role attributes that society/culture has assigned to the biological category of sex
oWomen: emotionality; men: competitiveness
Sex-related behaviour: behaviour corresponds to sex, does not say anything about
the cause or etiology of the difference
oGender role: expectations that go along with being male v. female
oRole: social position accompanied by a set of norms or expectations
oMen to be masculine and women to be feminine
Intrarole Conflict: expectations within a role conflict
oFemale ex: express feelings but also be sensitive to needs of others
oMale ex: achieve but be independent and not ask for help
Interrole Conflict: expectations of one role conflict with the expectations of
another role
oA male in a group project may experience conflict with the male gender
norm to be independent and the student norm to work together with
classmates on the project
oMales are les accepted for violating gender roles today
Gender identity/gender role identity: perception of the self as biologically male or
female
oTransgendered people: gender identity that does not correspond with their
biological sex
oTranssexuals: gender identity that does not correspond; but have hormonal
or surgical treatment
oIntersex: persons born with ambiguous genitals
oCisgendered: biological sex matches
Sexual orientation: whether people prefer other-sex or same-sex partners
oHeterosexuals: prefer opposite-sex partners
oHomosexuals: prefer same-sex partners
oBisexuals: accepting of both
oPansexual: prefer partners of any sex or gender identity (Miley Cyrus)
Gender Identity Disorder (GID)
oClassification in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
oPeople who are uncomfortable with their assigned biological sex
oControversy about whether GID should be classified as mental disorder
Sex typing (gender typing*): sex-appropriate preferences, behaviours, skills and
self-concept are acquired
oCross-sex-typed: males who acts feminine/ female who acts masculine

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oAndrogynous: both masculine and feminine qualities
Gender-role Attitude: our own personal view on how women and men should
behave
oTraditional view: males bread winners, females-kids and at home
oEgalitarian view: both men and women assertive and caring
oTransitional view: both traditional and egalitarian attitude
oSexism (affective/feeling)
oSex stereotype/Gender-role stereotype (cognitive)
oSex discrimination (behaviour)
oFeminism: believes all men and women should be treated equally
Cultural Differences in the Construal of Gender
Gender Culture: reflects society’s understanding of what is possible,
proper and perverse in gender-linked behaviour; each society generates its
own standards for gender-linked behaviour
Status and Culture
Males have a higher status than females
Boys are generally preferred over girls (especially fathers)
Male privilege: vote and go to war, government positions; rights that belong to
dominant group
Philosophical and Political Issues Surrounding Gender
The Sex Difference Debate
Minimalists: believe the two sexes are fundamentally the same
Maximalists: believe there are differences between the two
oThey argue difference does not mean deficit
Social Construction of Gender
Constructionists argue it is fruitless to study gender
oFacts about gender do not exist, only interpretations do
Womens Movements
1800sjust wanted greater respect not to equalize roles
NOW: national organization for women, 1967 ERA established
Focus on improving position of women in society; equal opportunites
Men’s Movement
NOMAS: National Org. for men against sexism, Bly/ mythopoetic
movement(society has stripped men of rituals connecting men), Promise Keepers
(Christian)—antifeminist b/c men & women aren’t viewed as equals
Some are for feminist positions, some are against

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Chapter 2: Methods and History of Gender Research
The Scientific Method
Rests on empiricism: info is collected via one of our major senses, usually sight
(info= data)
Facts: statements about data
Theory: collection of facts can generate a theory
Hypothesis: prediction that a certain outcome will occur
Steps in research process: theorieshypothesis generationhypothesis
testingdatafacts &repeat
Types of Research Designs
Correlational Study: observe relation between two variables, usually at a single
point in time (-1 to +1)
oPositive correlation: levels of both increase or decrease at the same time
Ex. more traditional gender-role attitudes for women, the more housework
done by that women
oNegative correlation: level of one variable increases as the level of the
other decreases Ex. more traditional gender-role attitudes for men, the less
housework done by that man
oRegression line
oAvoid selection bias randomly selected, randomly sample
Experimental Study: investigator manipulates one variable and observes its effect
on another variable
oIndependent variable (IV): is the manipulated variable (cause)
oDependent variable (DV): variable expected to be influenced by the
manipulated variable (effect)
oRandom assignment: each participant has equal chance of being chose
oSex is not a true independent variable because it can not be manipulated
most research comparing men and women is correlational not
experimental
oSex is a subject variable i.e. characteristic of a person
Validity:
oInternal validity: being confident you are measuring the true cause of the
effect
oExternal validity:
Enhancing Validity:
oField experiments: conducted in the field where behaviour naturally
occurs; weakness; cant control environment, know theyre being watched
maximize internal and external
oLongitudinal studies: multiple time points—do enhance validity, difficult
and timely ex. Employment and health and point 1 and 2
oCross-sectional: one time point; often different age groups
oSequential studies: both longitudinal and cross-sectional (cohorts), good
but confusing
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