PS288 Lecture 1: PS 287

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3 Jul 2017
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PS 287: Psychology of Gender
Chapter 1 - Introduction 9/14/2015 8:27:00 PM
Gender = spectrum
Sex vs. Gender
Sex refers to biological categories of male and female
Features such as genes, chromosomes, hormones
Relatively stable, not easily changed
Culture has no influence on one’s sex
Sex is defined in the same way across cultures, gender differs
because each society has its own prescriptions for how women
Male sex category includes the Y chromosome
Sex-related behaviours implies the behaviour corresponds to sex,
but it does not say anything about the cause or the etiology or the
difference
Gender refers to social categories of male and female and men ought to
behave
Psychological features and role attributes that society has assigned
to the biological category of sex
More fluid category: influenced by society, culture, and time
Emotionality is a trait we ascribe to women, and competitiveness is
a trait we ascribe to men
Gender Roles
Role: social position accompanied by set of norms or expectations
Gender role: expectations that accompany being male or female
o Expect men to be strong, not show emotions, masculine’ self-
confident, aggression
o Expect women to be caring, emotionally expressive …
feminine
Masculinity and Femininity
Masculinity: traits, behaviours, interests assigned by society to
male gender role
o Competence independence, and power
Femininity: traits, behaviours, interests assigned to the female
gender role
o Emotional, nurturing, social
Types of Role Conflict:
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Intrarole conflict: expectations within a role conflict
o Women should express their own feelings and be sensitive to
others’ needs
Interrole conflict: expectations of one role conflict with expectations
of another role
o Expectations of student role conflict with expectations for
gender role
Gender Identity
Gender role identity: perception of self as psychologically male or
female
Transgendered: biological sex does not match your gender identity
(psychological sex)
o People who live with a gender identity that does not
correspond to their biological sex
o Their biological sex is incongruent with their psychological sex
Cisgendered: biological sex matches gender identity
Transsexuals: have undergone hormonal or surgical treatments to
align biological sex to gender identity
o Male-to-female transsexuals most common, but female to
male does occur as well
o Gender identity that does not correspoding to their biological
sex
Intersex: person born with ambiguous genitalia
o Hermaphrodite
Gender Identity Disorder (GID)
Classification in the DSM IV TR
People who are uncomfortable with their assigned biological sex
o Transgender
Controversy about whether GID should be classified as a mental
disorder
Sexual Orientation
Refers to preference for other-sex or same-sex persons as romantic
partners
o Not synonymous with gender identity
o Heterosexuals: prefer other-sex partners
o Homosexual: prefer same-sex partners
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o Bisexual: other sex and same sex partners
o Pansexual: prefer partners of any sex or gender identity
Sex typing (gender typing) is the process by which sex-appropriate
preferences, behaviors, skills, and self-concept are acquired
o Sex typed: a male who thinks, feels, and behaves in
masculine ways and a female who thinks, feels and behaves
in feminine ways
o Cross-sex-typed: a male who acts feminine and a female who
acts masculine
o Androgynous: someone who incorporates both masculine and
feminine qualities is not sex-typed
Gender Role Attitudes (Ideologies)
Gender Ideologies (hochschild, 1989) are attitudes toward men’s
and women’s roles
Views about how women and men should behave
o Traditional: gender role attitudes fit society’s expectations for
how men and women should behave
o Egalitarian: believe that men and women should be similar in
characteristics and behaviours
o Transitional: strive for egalitarian, but some traditional
attitudes remain
Hochschild (1989) refers to a “transitional attitude”
which fits somewhere between traditional and
egalitarian gender-role attitudes
Cultural differences (Asians traditional based on Confucian doctrine)
Three components of Gender Role Attitudes (ABC)
Affective: feeling component
o Sexism or prejudice toward people based on their sex
o Negative attitude or affect, but it could entail positive effect
Cognitive: beliefs
o Sex stereotypes refer to our beliefs about the features of the
biological or psychological categories of male and females
Behaviour: treatment of others
o Sex discrimination which involves the differential treatment of
people based on their biological sex
Feminism
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