PS381 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Demand Characteristics, Psychopathology

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30 Jan 2013
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Lecture 6 : Analog Studies
Analog Studies
Diagnosed groups vs. range of normal variation
: ex. Diagnosed social phobias vs. those who do not, or compare high's vs. lows on a social
anxiety scale in a normal population
Analog studies : apply results of a study of undiagnosed individuals (ex. Those who score high and
low on an individual difference scale)
Easy to find pathological symptoms in normal populations
Gives you a starting point of why
Status of Analog Studies Varies
Sometimes seen as more useful and instructive to pathological disorders and sometimes less
Varies with view of psychopathology as being dimensional or categorical
Dimension : disorder is only a matter of degree (how much or little of symptoms they have), not in
kind of disorder
Categorical : disorder reflects a qualitative difference
: here analog studies do not tell you much about disorders
Why Analog Studies are Interesting
Manipulated conditions are expected to differentially affect the behaviour of the groups
: ex. Studying pain responses of high vs. low hypnotizables studied during hypnotic state in
which they receive suggestion for pain analgesia
Often attempt to understand psychopathology and mechanisms that contribute to it or produce it
They are quasi-experiments, not true experiments
: IV is not manipulated
Analog study of restraint breaking
Looked at chronic dieters
Had an administer restraint scale, identify high (chronic dieters) and low restrainers (non dieters)
Individual difference variable not manipulated
Experimental manipulation (IV)
: preload condition = drank 2 large milkshakes
: no preload condition = no milkshakes
Were asked to rate the different ice creams
DV : total grams of ice cream eaten by each participant
Results : The Dieters ate more ice cream, this is because they restraint broke their diet. It is because
they believe they already broke their diet, so miswell.
Results of Restraint Breaking Study
Confirm hypothesized results
Addresses how dieters struggle
Crucial Points of Analog Studies
Individual - difference variable
Experimentally manipulated variable
Dependent variable
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