PS100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, Specific Phobia, Social Anxiety Disorder

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18 Dec 2016
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Lecture 21
Phobias (Best Disorder to have)
Persistent, irrational fear of an object, situation, or activity that poses no real danger
Realize fear is irrational but compelled to avoid the feared object or situation
Types of Phobias:
o Social phobia- fear of interacting with others, avoid social situations (dancing with everyone on the
street)
o Agoraphobia- like social, more complicated, fear of being in a situation from which escape is difficult
or impossible (could be horrifically embarrassing to get out of the situation)
o Specific phobia- fear of specific thing
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessions: Persistent, recurring, involuntary thoughts, images, or impulses that invade consciousness
Common themes:
o Worry about contamination
o Doubt as to whether a certain act was performed
Compulsion: A persistent, irresistible, irrational urge to perform an act or ritual repeatedly
o Usually involve cleanliness, counting, checking, touching objects, hoarding, or excessive ordering
o Rituals are often used to avoid "danger"
What causes Anxiety Disorders?
Psychodynamic Explanations r
o Repressed urges threaten to surface
Cognitive Behavioural Learning Explanations
o Classical conditioning then operant conditioning
o Modeling
Cognitive Explanationg\
o Illogical/Irrational thought patterns
o Magnification
o All or nothing thinking
o Overgeneralization
o Minimization
Biological Explanations
o Genetics (Monozygotic twins more similar than Dizygotic twins, even when adopted)
o Neurochemical Contributions (neurotransmitters-e.g., GABA/Serotonin)
Mood (Affective) Disorders
Moods or emotions that are extreme and unwarranted
From extreme depression to extreme elation
o Depressive vs. Bipolar
Depressive Disorders
Depression
o Is not a cause 'case of the blues' or 'having a bad day'
o Clinical depression occurs when frequency, intensity, duration of symptoms is out of proportion to
situation
Dysthymia
o "Bad spirit"
o A milder form of clinical depression
o Chronic (lasts for years)
o No clear reason
Major depressive Disorder
o Overwhelming sadness, despair, and hopelessness
o Loss of ability to experience pleasure
o In extreme cases depression can:
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