PS100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Lucid Dream, Sleep Deprivation, Sleep Spindle

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18 Dec 2016
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Lecture 16
Sleep
Beta waves look like REM sleep
o Stage 1-alpha waves, stage 2-beta waves (sleep spindles), Stage 3 and 4 is a deep sleep with
delta waves
You can control your dreams (lucid dreaming)
How much do we sleep?
As we get closer to our wake time, we dream more so we are in a REM state
Little REM at the beginning, probably in deep sleep (complete rest of your body), usually during a
long period of sleep you go into total relaxation and then you go into an active state (REM
occasionally)
Sleep and Environment
Everyone knows the environment affect sleep
Effects of environmental factors
o Change in season (photoreceptors in eyes depend on light)
o Shiftwork, stress
o Noise (increase in arousal and heart rate, decrease time in deep slow-wave sleep, increase
time in less restful sleep)
Sleep and Age
Sleep less
REM sleep decreases during infancy, childhood
o Baies sped 50% of their sleep i REM tie as you get older you sleep less ad you do’t
have as much time in REM)
Time in stages3, 4 (slow-wave sleep) declines
Need more sleep when you are an adolescent
Short and Long Sleepers
Many individual difference in sleep time
Why?
o Genes
More similar patterns among identical twins
(Lark-fast increase in body temperature, Owl-slow increase in body temperature)-
temperature affects sleep
Long and short sleepers (average required 6.5 hours, 6-10 hours)
o Environmental factors
Time of day, lifestyle (everyone has a different cycle)
Sleep Deprivation
Types of sleep deprivation (typically can't have good sleep because of anxiety)
o Short-term (up to 45 hours without sleep)
o Long-term (more than 45 hours )
o Partial (no more than 5hours/night for 1 or more consecutive nights)
Negative impact on functioning
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