PS100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: B. F. Skinner, Reinforcement, Operant Conditioning

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18 Dec 2016

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Generalization- scared of spiders makes you scared of everything related to it
Discrimination- conditioned response occurs to one stimulus but not to another
Spontaneous recovery- Conditioned stimulus that diminished will pop back up again
Operant (Skinnerian or instrumental )
Thorndikes law effect- satisfying outcomes increase probability
Chaining- Using one conditioned stimulus to train another and make it have the same response
What's the most efficient schedule?- forward short delay
What's the least?-backward
Middle?- simultaneous
Variables that affect- Interval of time, response dominance (relative strengths of natural response)
Pavlov's- study salivation response in dogs (natural association)
Conditioned response- Trained to act a certain way (salivating because of bell)
Unconditioned response- happens due to stimulus (salivating cause of food)
Operant Conditioning (Thorndike and P.S. Skinner)
Skinnerian, Instrumental
Assumes that behaviours are voluntary, under our control
We have to emit a behaviour, "operate" on the environment, and then associate this behaviour
with a positive or negative outcome (way till behaviour is initialized to condition)
o Positive or negative will determine whether its repeated
o Reinforcement- likelihood that behaviour will increase/ punishers suppress behaviour
o Know reinforce for the individual (example about crazy kid- try to prevent kid from moving
forward on the ball, telling them to stop is reinforcing them because they get attention)
o Can have corporal punishment but its not the same because it decreases or inhibits
Positive Reinforcers
Primary reinforces
o Stimuli that are reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs (e.g food, drink)
Secondary reinforces
o Acquire reinforcing properties through association with primary reinforces (e.g money,
praise- will only work if its from the right person, someone who has value/ must understand
Reinforcers and punishers
Reinforcers- increase likelihood of a behaviour
positive- given to you in your environment, candy/smile/a+
negative- taken away from environment, buzzer/pain/ spraying water
Punishment- decrease likelihood of behaviour
positive- given to you in your environment, slap/shout
negative- taken away from environment, time out/not TV
About Punishment
Corporal punishment (has legs and consequences)
o Pain
o Changes behaviour quickly, but will not last (not 100% effective)
o Carries emotional vice
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