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PS101- 2.docx

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Kathy Foxall

PS101: 2 Foxall73817 course ID The Scientific Method: - Research methods: general strategies for conducting scientific studies. (the population is:…Example) - Participants > The ones who participate in research (The sample is:…) Why would we use a sample instead of a population? > You need to narrow down the population and turn it into an average sample. The entire population is far too large to research in its entirety - Scientific journals > Very important in research, where findings are published. 80% of articles submitted do not get published - The peer review process Random selection >Each member in the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. It is hard to get a random sample. Get a varied source of participants. Biased locations for conducting these samples are often avoided. Random Assignment:  Each member in the sample has an equal chance of being assigned to the experimental condition or control condition. Participants are not allowed to choose which group they will be in because of influential factors.  Researcher needs to do this objectively Experimental research: looking for Causes: Experiment >Manipulate one variable under carefully controlled conditions so the changes in the other variable can be observed > This allows us to determine cause and effect  Independent Variable (IV)= Variable that is directly manipulated by the experimenter.  Dependent Variable (DP)= Probably effected by manipulation, dependent on the independent variable. Ex. Does listening to music while studying affect score? IV = Is there music? DP= Score on test Replication: Few studies must be done about the topic before people are satisfied with the result (as long as they are similar) Experimental and Control groups. Experimental group:  Participants who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable. They do not know they are receiving special treatment because knowing you are receiving active treatment may have an effect. Control Group  Similar participants who don’t receive the special treatment (or receive 0 if the special treatment/independent variable). We need a control group so we can see the difference in people. Placebo Effect (why we need control group) Experime
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