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Wilfrid Laurier University
Eileen Wood

PS101 - PYCHOLOGY History of Psychology -started earliest pages of recorded history, and when people wondered about human nature and human behavior Psychology = Philosophy, no unique domain of psychology -philosophers were the ones arguing about what it was to be “human” and to “experience things” Founder of psychology – 1879 Wilhelm Wundt from Leipzig, Germany -conducted experiments, but not like today (Questioned experience, belief that all “experience” could be reduced to basic elements) Goal: define/explain the structure of conscious experience What kind of experiments did they do? Reaction times, attention span, perception of visual stimuli touch and hearing. Structuralism 101 -belief that all experience could be reduced to basic elements, could identify the structures (like building blocks, or elements in a chemistry reaction) -used introspection PROBLEM  Lots of criticism – not objective because stimulus stays the same but reported experience could change changes within and across people. Functionalism 101 -focus not on structure of consciousness but with how mental processes function -how do we use mental processes to adapt/survive? PURPOSE of why we do what we do, and whether it helps us stay alive -scope of psychology increases included behaviours (as well as mental processes) and includes children, animals, intellectually challenged. Why was it preferred? These groups excluded because couldn’t be trained to do introspection -babies holding onto finger help with survival of baby because parents connect with children -influenced by Darwin (origin of species by natural selection) and Galton (genetic inheritance on mental abilities) William James – advocated for functionalism wrote a book Principles of Psychology Mental processes are fluid (not rigid like structuralism) American Structuralism versus Functionalism Behaviourism – what you can see is what is measurable (brought us “time out” when you are bad) -don’t care how you feel or what you care about Science or Common Sense A science is a science NOT because of the nature of its discipline, or because of the subject matter but because of the approach it uses, it’s the use of the scientific method that makes psychology a science. Homework: read chapter two, go on PREP and start doing shtrufff ! What is Déjà vu? -Epilepsy research (temporal lobes) – decreased activity in Para hippocampal region of brain -Perception – split second timing different in neural pathways for what versus where info is. Cognitive memory – retrieval cues What are the 4 goals?  Describe –usually the first step in understanding behaviour or mental processes -answers “what” questions -observe, record, generate data PS101 - PYCHOLOGY -naturalistic observation and laboratory observation, case study *describing picture of curious George, he is holding a bucket, his hand is under water, there is a fish (not making any assumptions)  Explain – researchers try to understand the causes of the behaviour/mental processes -answers “why” something occurs -requires testing, re-testing, confirmation  Predict – when researchers can specify conditions which will likely cause the behaviour or cognitive process to occur -answers the “when” question -Cause and effect – experiment/quasi-experiment  Control/influence – when researchers can change a condition or manipulate something to bring about desired outcomes -prevent some behaviors; increase others -experiment/quasi experiment Methods to achieve the goals: Naturalistic and laboratory observations – playground versus big brother Case studies – special samples Surveys – big samples/self-report Experiments Hypothesis -a prediction, a cause-effect relationship, manipulation -example: type of studying and test performance Independent variables – the one you manipulate Dependent variables – the one that you measure/record Experimental groups – gets the manipulation Control groups – equivalent BUT does not get the manipulation/treatment, eliminates extraneous variables (extraneous – anything in environment that you couldn’t anticipate that could affect outcome) wood73067  course ID PET408  course ID to register for Pearson simulation results th September 20 , 2012 Answers to Assignment #1 Hypothesis? The experimenters were testing whether sematic memory questions to outperform structural or kinetic. Independent variable? whether you remember the most of the sematic words, or the rhyming and capital ones Dependent variable? how many words you remembered that were each kind of word Experimental group? We were the experimental group Control Group? We were the control group Pros and Cons of experimental methods Pros (can establish cause and effect) Limitations to overcome (selection bias) PS101 - PYCHOLOGY *cannot cherry pick your audience to get the outcome you want (testing if studying will increase your mark, can’t select Einstein, Stephan hawking, homer, and Bullwinkle) The cure for selection bias? Random selection (every fifth person gets tested), random assignment (randomly assign woman, then randomly assign men, too make sure you have the same amount of each gender, but different woman and men go in different groups randomly) Cons of experimental methods: -experimenter bias (when researchers preconceived ideas cause them of find what they expect to find, can influence the participant or the researcher) E.g. can be subtle – head nod, smile. (E.g. what’s the magic word? if you don’t come up with it the parent will head nod and edge you along) Placebo effect (response to the manipulation is due to expectations not the manipulation) E.g. given sugar pill instead of pain medication, but psychologically think that the pain is actually less The cure for experimenter bias and placebo effects: Blind and double blind techniques (participants don’t know what the experiment is, whether they are getting the sugar pill or the medication, and the experimenter is removed from the setting so they can’t hint at people which one they have; the watch from a removed room) Hire RA’s and remove experimenter (RA’s don’t know what the pills are for, just hand them out) Summary of Biases: Design concerns? -selection bias (cure: random sampling/random assignment) -experimenter bias (cure: blind/double blind) -placebo (cure: exposure control group) Outcomes of Experiments -review scores in your group-group beside you -measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode… ) Not everyone gets the same score -expect a distribution (normal distribution (bell shapes)) a few at each side, most people in middle -measure variability (gives how much variability a score has from the mean) Little variability – all bunched up close to the mean Lots of variability – wide curve Standard deviation is an index score – based on the distribution -tells where in relation to the general plot of scores, the score falls Inferential Statistics: -used to test hypotheses -lots of different tests selected on the basis of the characteristics of the study E.g. t-test (tests difference between mean scores) or analysis of variance (the number of people within the “mean”… if 69% of group get average between 71.8 and 72.2 and you get a 74 you are superb, while if the 10% is 71-72, even though average is 71.5, the spread is grand and you are not that significantly high, the difference isn’t statistically exciting) -try to determine if the results are due to chance or not Statistical significance – reliable no “important” -compare the mean score of the sematic, rhyming, and phonemic words (based on groups not individuals) PS101 - PYCHOLOGY What type of stat is used for each of the following? a) A psychologist reports that giving children “cheesies” as a reward for staying on task increases their attention to the task (inferential) b) A psychologist reports that childhood obesity is related to type II diabetes. (correlation) Midterm on October 11 Chapter 1, 2, and Appendix A Biological Bases of Behaviour (THE BRAIN!) -specialized cells that carry messages throughout the nervous system -Electrochemical exchange-both electrical and chemical Neurons  differ in shape and size and function  cortex is packed with nerve cells where 2 thirds of our neurons exist  each neuron communicates with other neurons  Networks are formed amongst cells, and communication lines are formed to help the neurons communicate through chemical and electrical signals.  Message passes from one neuron to another through the synaptic clef  Incoming molecules attach to receptor sites, which open gates to let in sodium and potassium ions and start up a new signal in the receiving neuron  The receiving neuron then releases molecules across the synapse to the receptor sites on the next neuron and so forth. Types of Neurons: Afferent Neurons (sensory) – relay information from the senses to the brain and spinal cord Efferent Neurons (motor) – send information from the central nervous system to the glands and muscles, enabling the body to move and react to surroundings. Interneurons – carry information between neurons in the CNS Anatomy of a nerve:  Cell body – need the nucleus for the nerve to survive  Dendrites – the little branches extending from the cell body that allow the neuron to communicate with other neurons  Axons – the cable that runs from one end of a neuron to the other  Myelin sheath – the protective coating (fatty white stuff) around the axon  Nodes of Ranvier – gaps between the myelin sheath on the axon. The message needs to jump across these gaps which is why some messages are not delivered  Terminal buttons – at the end of a line of a neuron (where the chemicals are released) Glial Cells  like the glue that holds neurons together  waste system, removes waste such as dead neurons  Can in some cases “act like a neuron” – can do some communication things Firing of Neuron:  When the neuron is at rest the inside is negative relative to the outside  When the neuron is stimulated positively charged particles enter, the action potential is initiated- the neuron is depolarized  After a brief period, some positively charged particles are pushed outside the neuron and the neuron moves back towards its polarized state  The neuron has finally returned to its initial polarized resting state  Resting potential – negative charge PS101 - PYCHOLOGY  Action potential – stimulated, channels in membrane open, positively charged sodium ions enter, shift in electrical charge.  Refractory Period – channels close and back at resting state All-or-none law:  neuron either fires or it doesn’t  intensity is conveyed by the rapidity of firing Synapse- Where neurons meet  neurons don’t touch each other Structures:  axon terminal  synaptic vesicles (sacs, stores chemicals)  neurotransmitters (transmit info between neurons)  Synaptic cleft (gap between different neurons, neurons DON’T touch!) Neurotransmitters: Acetylcholine between motor neurons and voluntary muscles – responsible for movement  Throughout nervous system  Agonists excite – increase likelihood of firing  Antagonists opposes – decreases likelihood of firing - curare -Black widow spiders increase release of acetylcholine, to the point that you release ALL of it; which causes you to be paralyzed and can’t move, nor can you breathe because you have no muscle action. Monoamines – 3 neurotransmitters Dopamine – excites and inhibits learning, attention, movement, and reinforcement (good job!), treatment for Parkinson, schizophrenia Norepinephrine – affects eating habits, alertness, and wakefulness. Predominant in fear Serotonin – plays role in regulating mood, sleep, impulsivity, aggression and appetite. Epinephrine - causes surges of energy, predominant in anger GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) – learning, thought, and emotions; controls anxiety Endorphins – relieve pain and produce feelings of pleasure and well-being; runners high Central nervous system – brain, spinal cord -off of spinal cord is all your nerves Nerves make up peripheral nervous system Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system – sympathetic nervous system, and parasympathetic nervous system The brain – 3 major sections Hindbrain – cerebellum, medulla, pons Midbrain – reticular formation Forebrain – cerebral hemispheres Hindbrain – lower on the nervous system hierarchy Medulla  closest to the spinal cord  controls vital bodily functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, circulation, coughing, and swallowing Cerebellum  deep convolutions PS101 - PYCHOLOGY  controls bodily balance and muscular coordination  integrates information from muscles, tendons, and joints  helps provide smooth coordinated body movements Pons  functions as a relay mechanism  assists in control of movement Midbrain –contains several neural centers that control some motor reactions and some sensory functions, reticular formation – regulates attention and alertness (sleep and arousal) -integration of sensory processes-limited auditory and visual functions Forebrain – largest and most complex region -if forebrain is transected, can stand up, but can’t have coordination intentionally -Two hemispheres Thalamus  relay system for all sensory information (Except smell)  organizes where sensory information will go Hypothalamus  regulation of basic biological needs (fighting, fleeing, feeding, mating (or the other word)) (the 4 F’s haha) Limbic system  multi-component system  emotion, motivation, memory  if transected cat there, cat would now be able to coordinate intentionally, but it will be “stupid”, will run sideways to chase a mouse  Cerebral cortex  covers the cerebral hemispheres  responsible for higher mental processes (language, memory, thinking)  thin outer layer  densely packed summit Cerebrum  is composed of two cerebral hemispheres, left and right  mirror images of each other  4 lobes each 2 Hemispheres, 4 Lobes of the brain Frontal lobe  Motor cortex, located anterior skull  Involved in moving of muscles Parietal lobe  Somatosensory cortex  Sense of touch  Position in space Occipital lobe  Primary visual cortex Temporal lobe Corpus Collosum  Connects the two hemispheres Hemispheres: Lateralization Specialization – left and right Left – language (grammar, letters, spelling), mathematics, analytical, sequential Right – visual, special, holistic, “hear” language (the melody of your speech), creativity, intuition PS101 - PYCHOLOGY Where does signal come from and where does it go? -much of our primary functions are connected to the opposite side of the body -things happening on the left are processed by the right hemisphere of the brain -things happening on the right are processed by the left hemisphere Special Language Centres Brocas area – speech production, expressive aphasia; know the words in their head, but can’t get them out – frontal lobe Wernickes area – speech comprehension, aphasia; can talk forever but don’t necessarily make sense – temporal lobe Plasticity  the ability of the brain to reorganize and compensate for brain damage, a change in function and structure (reorganize, repair) Old view – once damages it is all over  developmental literature saying neurons in place prenatally  Proliferation versus growth – key points developmentally New findings  Neurogenesis; hippocampus (limbic system - learning and memory) olfactory bulb  neurogenesis not just replacement, could be repair  flexibility in the system Scanning Techniques TMS – look in textbook EEG – electroencephalogram (measuring brain waves)  measures electrical activity in the brain  electrodes attached to scalp  output is “brain waves”  normal activity falls within typical amplitude and duration of wave CT scan – computerized axial tomography  x-ray type images, may require dye  lots of images, layer them on top of each other (gives a cross section)  measures brain structure MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)  uses magnets, scans and builds a 2-D or 3-D image  very clear image, distinguishes among different body tissues  need to avoid all metal objects  measures brain structure PET scan – positron-emission tomography  small dose of radioactive substance injected  radioactive substance emits positrons  different colours indicate different tissue  tissues differentially pick up radioactive substance  color, active processing  measures brain function Function MRI (fMRI)  based on the amount of oxygen in the blood  uses magnets  measures activity in brain  function & structure PS101 - PYCHOLOGY Endocrine System  glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream  some double function-neurotransmitter  affect bodily functions Pituitary Gland  major gland, impacts other glands, signals other glands to action (works with hypothalamus)  (the 4 F’s, fight flight feed and mate) Thyroid Gland – regulates metabolism (the rate food is transformed into energy)  too much – hyperthyroidism-nervous excitable, lots of energy, thin  too little – hypothyroidism- calm, sleepy, over weight Pancreas – regulates blood sugar levels  releases hormones – insulin and glucagon  too little insulin – diabetes (can’t break down sugars)  too much insulin (hypoglycemia, low blood sugar) Adrenal Glands  hormones activate the sympathetic nervous system  epinephrine and norepinephrine  also control salt balance Gonads  enable reproduction, development of secondary sex characteristics (testosterone in book) Sensation vs. Perception Sensation – the process through which the senses detect visual, auditory, and other sensory stimuli and transmit them to the brain Perception – the process by which sensory information is actively organized and interpreted by the brain -sensation gives us the visual cues, perception fills in the blanks (The example of staring at the screen with a plus sign and a circle, one of them eventually disappears) Threshold – how much stimulation required before we can detect it is there Absolute Threshold – the difference between not being able to perceive a stimulus and being able to just barely perceive it; the smallest amount of stimulation necessary to you to be able to detect Threshold -how much stimulation needs to be present for you detect the stimuli (how much sugar before you notice there is sugar in your coffee) (how light can someone touch without you noticing) -the difference between not being able to perceive a stimulus and being able to just barely perceive it – the smallest amount of stimulation necessary for you to be able to detect -the minimum amount of sensory stimulation can be detected 50% of the time Difference Threshold – the smallest increase or decrease in a physical stimulus that is required to produce the “just noticeable difference” (JND) in sensation that is detectable 50% of the time Weber Fraction:  the amount of increase needed to make a difference  example: if you are carrying 2kg, 1 additional gram will not make a difference, but if you carry only 20 grams, 1 gram will make a difference  Real life example: radiology (have greater sensitivity to certain areas of the grey scale than others. Calculate difference in grey scale most people need, then set standards for all presentation of x-ray’s The Flaw with these classic measures: -the focus on the physical stimulus (how strong or weak it is, and how much or how little there is) -what about individual variations? (Individuals differ from each other; individuals can differ depending on context) Signal Detection Theory: PS101 - PYCHOLOGY -detection of sensory stimulus involves noticing a stimulus from background noise and decision about whether the stimulus is present Decision = probability of stimulus occurrence + potential gain or loss with deciding whether the stimulus was present or not Example: picking up your cousin who you have never met from airport Sensory Adaptation -process of becoming less sensitive to an unchanging sensory stimulus over time -automatic process -allows us to shift attention Vision -Precursor; light -We can’t see any object unless light is reflected from it or given off by it The Eye: Cornea  Tough and transparent  “herds” is curved and causes information to bend and enter (“it herds light in”)  Muscles in iris contract/expand to adjust size of pupil  Pinhead-to-eraser head Lens  Focuses images on retina  Accommodation (flat = far, bulge = near)]  Corrective lens help people who can’t detect either near or far sighted Retina  At the back, where all the sensory information goes  Contains sensory receptors for vision (rods and cones) Rods  Black and white and grey  Dim light Cones  Colour  No dim light Fovea  Fine detail Optic Nerve PS101 - PYCHOLOGY Colour -perceive small part of electromagnetic (EM) spectrum -light waves measured in nanometers (billionths of meter) -we see 700nm to 400nm. 3 dimensions of colour vision: Hue – is the specific colour perceived, wavelength Brightness – refers to the intensity of the light energy that is perceived, amplitude of wave Saturation – refers to the purity of the color (rich or a deep color) Theories of colour vision: Trichromatic Theory (Young-Helmholtz)  Three types of color receptors in retina  Cones most sensitive to blue green and red wavelengths  Visual system combines activity from these cells  Colours are perceived by additive mixture of impulses  If all are equally activated – white colour is produced Trichromatic theory cannot explain:  Red-green colour blind individuals should not be able to perceive yellow (red + green = yellow)  Afterimages  Stare at red – look away you’ll see green (same for blue and yellow) Opponent-Process Theory (Hering, 1870)  Three cone types  Each responds to two different wave lengths  Red or green, blue or yellow, black or white This explains afterimages…  Stare at certain color  Neural processes become fatigued  Have “rebound” affect with receptor responding with its opponent opposite reaction Dual Process Theory  Combines trichromatic & opponent-process theories  3 types of cones sensitive to short (blue) medium (green) and long (red) wavelengths  These cones stimulate opponent-process reactions  Opponent processes occur in ganglion cells, neurons in relay stations & visual cortex Characteristics of Sound  stimulus for hearing = sound waves  described by 2 characteristics (Frequency and amplitude) Frequency  Number of cycles per second (Hz per second)  Related to the pitch of the sound we hear (20Hz versus 20000Hz) Sound example: Amplitude  Amount of compression and expansion of molecules  Related to “loudness” we perceive  Measured in decibels (dB)  Normal conversation about 65dB; rock band about 120dB The Human Ear Anatomy PS101 - PYCHOLOGY Middle EAR  Vibration cause malleus, incus, stapes (3 tiny bones) to vibrate\  Amplify sound more than 30x  Cause oval window to move in and out Inner Ear  Contains cochlea  Houses basilar membrane which mvoes as oval window moves  On top of membrane is organ of corti  Contains hair cells = sound receptors  Hair cells synapse with auditory nerve  Send impulses to auditory relay station thalamus – then to auditory cortex (temporal lobe) Pinna  Outer ear, part you use for earrings and sunglasses  Sound enters auditory canal  Causes tympanic membrane (eardrum) to vibrate Cochlea  Snail shaped fluid filled organ in inner ear, containing stuructre where receptors for hearing are loacted Theories of hearing: explaining pitch Place Theory – ear individual pitch is determined by the particular spot or place along the basilar membrane of the cochlea that vibrates the most Frequency theory – the hair cell receptors vibrate the same number of times per second as the sounds that reach them Current Understanding?  both theories have flaws and both have some merit  Blend of the two is accepted now Sound Location -binaural hearing (2 ears) helps localize sound Timing of sounds  Sounds arrive at closest ear first  use differences in arrival time Intensity of sounds  sound arriving at closest ear will be more intense  use differences in intensities Hearing Loss Conduction deafness  involves mechanical system of hearing  punctured eardrum, loss of function of bones of middle ear Nerve deafness  involves damaged receptors  exposure to loud sounds can damage hair cells Chemical Senses – Taste and Smell Sense of taste:  about 9000 taste buds grouped in different regions  located on edges and back of tongue  taste sensations are: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami  papillae are small bumps on the tongue that contain taste buds  chemical receptors = taste buds – consist of several receptor cells Sense of Smell  olfactory epithelium  olfactory bulbs PS101 - PYCHOLOGY  pheromones Sense of Touch  sensitive to 4 tactile sensations (pressure, pain, warmth, cold)  skin is largest organ in body (contains variety of receptor structures)  pain and temperature (free nerve ending receptors beneath skins surface)  touch and pressure (nerve fibres at base of hair follicles)  send messages to somatic sensory cortex Other Senses Kinesthetic  Provides information about (1) the position of body parts in relation to each other and (2) the movement of the entire body and or its parts.  Based on information from tendons, muscles, and joints Vestibular Sense  Detects movement and provides information about the body’s orientation in space  Receptors in vestibular apparatus of inner ear Perception: Understand sensory input -2 Kinds of processing functions Bottom up  Small parts to whole  Detect sensory information pieces of info sent to brain, combined and assembled, unified whole Top-Down Processing  Past experience and knowledge influence perceptions  Able to find meaningful links between the individual elements taken in by our sensory receptors  Use existing knowledge, concepts, ideas, expectations  Perceptual Set – an example of top-down processing where individuals expectations affect their perceptions Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization  Figure-ground – simplest form of organization, have foreground and background Figure – distinct shape, more striking Figure ground distinction can be ambiguous  Similarity – similar items belong together  Proximity – elements that are close together belong together  Continuity – close open edges; perceive boundaries and fill gaps  Closure –elements are linked to form a continuous line, pattern Perceptual Constancies  Size constancy  as you walk to your car – the image on your retina gets larger, but you do not perceive your car to be growing, death perception (you see the car faraway so it appears small, but we do not think that the car shrunk)  Shape  your friends face has a different shape when you look at their profile than face on, but you do not perceive that your friends face has changed  Constancy  recognize stimuli under varying conditions  Brightness constancy  the colour of your jacket may be different in full sunlight than in shade, but you do not perceive that you are wearing a different jacket Depth Perception  Image on the retina is 2 dimensional but we live in a 3 dimensional world  Monocular depth cues (visual depth cues perceived by one eye alone) PS101 - PYCHOLOGY  Binocular depth cues (depth perceived with 2 eyes, visual depth cues that depend on both eyes working together) Monocular depth cues  Linear perspective  Parallel lines that are known to be the same distance apart appear to grow closer together, or converge, as they receded into the distance  Relative size  larger objects are perceived as being closer to the viewer, and smaller objects as being father away.  Texture gradient  near objects appear to have sharply defined textures, while similar objects appear progressively smoother and fuzzier as they recede into the distance  Shadow or shading  when light falls on objects, they cast shadows. You can distinguish bulges from indentations by the shadows they cast  Motion parallax  when you ride a moving vehicle and look out the side window, the objects you see outside appear to be moving in the opposite direction. The objects also seem to be moving at different speeds- those closest to you appear to be moving fast than those at a distance. Objects very far away, such as the moon and the sun, appear to move in the same direction as the viewer. Binocular Depth Cues  Have 2 eyes for a reason, gives exquisite depth perception  2 eyes receive different visual images  Convergence, feedback from ocular muscles when focusing on something distant and then close Illusions  Illusions are incorrect perceptions, provide information about perceptual processes (converging lines disrupt size constancy), they play on our depth cues to fool us Inattentional Blindness  Focusing your attention on one thing so you miss other things (e.g. missing a red light when thinking about dinner) Chapter 4? States of Consciousness What is consciousness?  Subjective and private (others cannot directly know our reality and vice versa)  Dynamic (ever-changing)  Self-reflective (mind is aware of its own consciousness) History of the Question; what is consciousness?  Seemed ideally suited to psychology  Difficult topic, was very subjective, nothing was for sure  No agreement, so dropped from psychology (temporarily)  Wundt and Titchener worked on it back in the day, but we didn’t like their theories Consciousness  Infer much from absence of consciousness  Perform many mental functions without being aware of it  Non-conscious – you have access to conscious thought, but don’t use it (driving without thinking)  Unconscious – things that we can’t be actively cognitively aware of (beating heart) –Freud Term Measuring Consciousness  How do we operationally define inner states?  Self-reports (direct but no verifiable)  Physiological (EEG, are objective but cannot indicate what person is experiencing subjectively)  Behavioural (performance on tasks (ex. Rouge test) need to infer state of mind) Circadian Rhythms: Brain and Environment  Circadian rhythms regulated by suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)  SCN neurons link to pineal gland, which secretes melatonin (tells us when we should or shouldn’t sleep)  Neurons in SCN are active during daytime, inhibits melatonin secretion, raises body temperature and alertness PS101 - PYCHOLOGY  Neurons in SCN become inactive at night, allows melatonin secretion to increase, melatonin promotes relaxation and sleepiness Why Important?  Influence tendency to be a “morning person” or a “night person”  Disruptions of circadian rhythms? Jet lag, night-shift work, season affective disorder  Promote readiness for sleep (spend about 1/3 of time asleep) Sleep can be recorded  Language of nervous system is electrical  Electrodes measure  4 types of waves o Alpha – relaxed o Beta – active o Theta – light sleep o Delta – deep sleep Stages of Sleep  Cycle through stages roughly every 90 minutes o Brain activity, other physiological responses change o Beta waves occur when awake and alert (15-30 cycles per second) o Alpha waves occur when relaxed and drowsy (8-12 cps) Stage one:  Light sleep  Theta waves (3.5 – 7.5 cps)  Lasts few minutes  May experience “body jerks” Stage 2  Sleep deepens – muscles more relaxed – harder to awaken  Sleep spindles (1-2 second bursts of rapid brain activity) Stage 3  Sleep deepens  Regular appearance of delta waves (0.5-2 cps) Stage 4  Sleep deepens  Delta waves dominate pattern  Stage 4 and stage 3 together called “slow wave sleep” October 24 , 2012 Sleep and the Environment  Everyone knows the environment affects sleep  Effects on environmental factors o Changes in season o Shiftwork, stress o Noise  Increase arousal & heart rate, decrease time in deep slow wave sleep, increase time in less restful sleep Sleep and Age  Sleep less  REM sleep decreases during infancy, childhood  Time in stages 3, 4 (slow-wave sleep) declines  As you age, you have less percentage of REM sleep, going from 50% at infancy, to 20% in elder age Short and Long Sleepers  Many individual differences in sleep time, why?  Genes PS101 - PYCHOLOGY o More similar patterns among identical twins o Lark-fast increase in body temperature, owl-slow increases in body temperature o Long and short sleepers (Average required 6.5 hours, 6-10)  Environmental factors o Time of day, life style Sleep Deprivation  Types of sleep deprivation o Short-term (up to 45 hours without sleep) o Long-term (more than 45 hours) o Partial (no more than 5 hours/night for 1 or more consecutive nights)  Negative impact on functioning o Mood suffered most (irritable) o followed by decrements in cognitive and physical performance  Underestimate negative effects o Takes several nights to recover o DO NOT make up all sleep time lost o REM rebound to make up Dreams  Small number in NREM  Almost all dreams are in REM o Vivid, emotional, story like, can be bizarre What do we dream about?  Fears, wishes, plans hopes and worries – the things we focus on while awake  Common themes (Canadian student survey) o Chased, sex, falling, teachers/studying, arriving too late, trying to do something repeatedly, someone dies, flying…  No agreed-upon theory  Two important concepts o Manifest content (surface story of dream) – the story you are allowed to repeat o Latent content (disguised psychological meaning of dream) – the not so good one  Symbols are meaningful to the individual (not generic)  Examples of symbols: chest of drawers = sexual female, rodents = siblings  Represent our personal experiences Dreams – Theories  Freud’s psychoanalytic theory o Wish fulfillment o Gratification of unconscious desires/needs (sexual and aggressive urges)  Problem solving o Cognitive bases – our dreams are about problem solving, and you can learn in your sleep o Creative thinking, consolidation – problems we were working on during the day that we couldn’t solve, we can often solve the next day (because brain was working on it overnight)  Activation – Synthesis o Brain active – have to explain it/synthesis o If you smell something or hear something the brain will play it into the story in your dream Hypnosis  State of heightened suggestibility  Some experience imagined situations as if they were real  Hypnotic induction – process by which hypnotist leads person into hypnosis  Hypnotic susceptibility scales – series of pass/fail suggestions read after hypnotic induction Under Hypnosis  Hypnotic involuntary control – no unique power to get people to behave “against their will”  Amazing feats? No scientific evidence to support PS101 - PYCHOLOGY  Increased pain tolerance (hypnosis can increase pain relief, so can
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