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Lecture

PS101 Chapter 5

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Lawrence Murphy
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 5 nd October 22 , 2012 Body Rhythms and Mental States - Biological rhythms: the tides of experience - Rhythms of sleep - Exploring the dream world - The Riddle of Hypnosis - Consciousness-altering drugs Biological Rhythms - We spend a third of our life sleeping; doing something we don’t know why we do it - Biological Rhythms: a periodic, more or less regular fluctuation in a biological system - External cues(entrainment) and Internal cues (endogenous) - Biological rhythms influence effectiveness of medication, alertness, job performance – ex. more productive in the morning then you are at night (sometimes it has to do with caffeine, but on its own, it affects a variety of things) Circadian rhythm - Every 24 hours cycle, sleep wake cycle - commonly entertained to external time cues (ex. rising/setting of the sun) - endogenous rhythm averages around 24.3 hours (alarm clock or mother yelling at you to wake up) - removed cues about 10% of people have clocks running slower and 10% running faster - increase in accidents at transition of Daylight Savings Time – 10-20% more accidents - controlled by biological clock in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SNC)- regulates levels of melatonin secreted by pineal gland – ex. if you fly to austrailia you should have melatonin to adapt better to the time difference and jet lag Out of Sync? - Internal desynchronization - a state in which biological rhythms are not in phase (synchronized) with one another - changed in your normal routines can cause desyncronization (ex. midterm time when you stay up so late, or eat different things from normal) - may also occur in response to jet lag, rotating shift work, daylight savings time - ----youtube videos----- - Desynchronization is NOT a form of seasonal affective disorder Moods and Long-term Rhythms - Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) - a disorder in which a person experiences depression during the winter and an improvement of mood in the spring --Ex. inside too long don’t get light= impacts us - treatments may involve phototherapy or exposure to fluorescent light - inconsistent findings with respect to prevalence (2-20%) and effectiveness of treatments Moods and Menstrual Cycles - Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) - vague cluster of physical and emotional symptoms associated with the days preceding menstruation that was labeled as an illness - physical symptoms (ex. cramps, water retention) are common - emotional symptoms (ex. irritability, depression) are rare Moods, PMS and Research - Estimates of prevalence range from 13% to ‘most women’ - Expectations and beliefs may be related to PMS symptom reporting – young women are expecting to be irritable/frustrated because that’s what’s ‘supposed to happen’; kind of like a placebo - Evidence supports that women often experience physical symptoms, but the emotional symptoms are more difficult to say whether it does happen or not The Rhythms of Sleep - During sleep, we cycle between periods of REM and non-REM sleep (90 minutes) - Rapid eye movement (REM)- characterized by eye movement, loss of muscle tone and dreaming - Non-Rem sleep (NREM)- characterized by fewer eye
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