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PS101 Chapter 6

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Lawrence Murphy

Chapter 6 October 29 , 2012 Lecture 12 Sensation and Perception --The Divided Brain – youtube video Sensation - The detection of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects - Occurs when energy in the external environment or the body stimulates receptors in the sense organs - Sensation is the feeling on your hand the perception is the processing Perception - Process by which the brain organizes and interoperates sensory information Sense receptors - Specialized cells that convert physical energy in the environment or the body to electrical energy that can be transmitted as nerve impulses to the brain - Dendrites of sensory neurons responsible for smell, pressure, pain and temperature - Specialized cells for visions, hearing and taste Ex. vision could be poor, but sensors are strong- Separate Sensations - Doctrine of specific nerve energies (Muller) -principle that different sensory modalities exist because signals received by the sense organs stimulate different nerve pathways leading to different areas of the brain -if possible, allows for sensory substitution -sensory crossover also occurs in synesthesia where stimulation of one sense constantly evokes a sensation in another -take certain kinds of information and transfer it into knowledge *- take different kinds of sensation and generate a perception Measuring the Senses Absolute threshold --the point at which you detect a stimulus about half of the time - The smallest quantity of physical energy that can be reliably detected by an observed (50% of the time) – ex. if someone asks you if there is a candle and its pitch dark, you most likely will be able to tell - Senses are sharp, but only tuned into narrow band of physical energies Difference Threshold - Smallest difference you can detect - There has to be a noticeable enough difference ex. if one person is clapping you can hear one extra person added in but if there is 100 people clapping you cant tell if one extra person starts to clap - Also called the just noticeable difference- - Webers Law: size of the just noticeable difference proportional to size of initial stimulus --- increasing something slowly over time- - Just noticeable difference is 1/30 Signal detection theory- - Divided into a process and a decision - Whether the stimulus was there or wasn’t there and what the person says - 4 things that can happen- -right or wrong- false positive(error 1- test catches it and you don’t actually have it or a false negative(type 2 error- when you actually have it but the test says you don’t) Sensory Adaptation and Sensory Deprivation - Sensory adaptation- reduction or disappearance of sensory responsiveness when stimulation is unchanging or repetitious - Still sensing the fan being on but you’re not perceiving it, the brain doesn’t pay attention to it - Ex. adapting to a train going by if you live next to the tracks or adapting to a particular smell - Sensory deprivation- form of
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