Abnormal Behaviour 11/13/2012 8:40:00 AM
- Release demons
History of Psychological Disorders:
Hippocrates – Illnesses are vital fluids. Phlegm, black bile, yellow bile,
blood) This can be treated since it’s an illness and not devils.If you have
too much of one, you will act atypically.
Catholic Church – Evil spirits and exorcism.
Rennaissance – Witchcraft.
What is abnormal?
-Several questions can help determine if behavior is abnormal.
1) Is the behavior considered strange within the person’s own culture.
2) Does the behavior cause personal distress.
3) Is the behavior maladaptive?
4) Is the person a danger to self or others?
- Statistical definition – frequency. Rare = Abnormal. Common =
- Challenging to use this for abstract ideas like happiness.
- Social Norm Deviance: Use norms or standards of society. Need to be
fully aware of all situational variables/cultural variables.
- Subjective Discomfort: Does the individual experience emotional
discomfort with their behavior. Some are not uncomfortable.
- Maladaptive behaviours: Prevent person from functioning.
- Mental Illness: Two Major Categories – Neurosis and Psychosis
Neurosis: Disorder causing personal distress and some impairment in
functioning. Not causing one to lose contact with reality or to violate
important social values. Psychosis: Severe psychological disorder, sometimes requiring
hospitalization. Typically lose contact with reality, suffer delusions and/or
hallucinations. Seriously impaired ability to function in everyday life.
Delusions: Hallucinations. Reality is different. How you live.
- Unrealistic anxiety.
- Vague, general uneasiness.
- Feeling that something bad is about to happen.
- May be associated with a particular situations or object, or it may be “Free-
floating” – not associated with anything specific.
Types of Anxiety Disorders
1) Generalized Anxiety Disorder
2) Panic disorder
4) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
- The diagnosis given to people who experience excessive anxiety and worry
that they find difficult to control.
- 6 months or more
- Sleep, tension, nausea, diarrhea, urination, sweating problems
- Estimate the heritability to 30%
- Recurrent, unpredictable panic attacks that cause apprehension about the
occurrence and consequences of further attacks.
- Symptoms: A pounding heart, uncontrollable trembling or shaking, and a
feeling of being shocked or smothered.
- May report being afraid that they are going ot die or that they are going
- Panic disorder can have significant social and health consequences.
Phobias: - Persistent, irrational fear of some specific object, situation or activity that
poses no real danger.
- Realize fear is irrational but compelled to avoid the feared object or
- Three classes of phobias: Social, agoraphobia and specific phobia.
Classes of Phobias:
- Social Phobia – Fear of interacting with others, avoid social situations.
- Agoraphobia – Like social, more complicated, fear of being in a situation
from which escape is difficult or impossible.
- Specific Phobia – Fear of specific things. Schizophrenia 11/13/2012 8:40:00 AM
1) Disorder in Thinking
2) Speech Disturbances: Make up words, string by sounds.
3) Disorders of Thought/Logic: Sudden interruption. Hard to link thoughts
4) Hallucinations: Both auditory and visual. Auditory more common.
5) Affect: is incongruent and inappropriate: Sometimes flat.
6) Behaviours: Bizarre/Odd, Disorganized, Can act violently.
- Biochemical, anatomical, hereditary and psychosocial factors.
- Main biochemical explanations is dopamine hypothesis.
- ***Too much in basal ganglia and too little in frontal cortex.
Heredity – Yes there is a genetic ____.
- 1% of the population has schizophrenia
- Same percentage for women and men
- Onset: 15-25 for men and 25 – 35 for women.
- Huge variation in symptoms.
- A long-standing, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of behaving and relating to
- Usually begins in childhood or adolescence.
- Tend to have problems in their relationships and at work.
Generally clustered into 3 categories:
1) Odd Behaviour
- Example: Schizotypal - Lacks social skills
- Odd ideas
- Different wardrobe
- Narcissistic Personality Disorder
- Self-important, high entitlement, self-centered, arrogant, exploitive,
craves admiration/attention, lacks empathy.
- Ask you questions with only 1 answer. Manipulate you to get you to
talk about them.
- Antisocial personality disorder
- Lie, steal, fight etc. Often drink excessively.
- Adulthood: typically fail to keep a job, doesn’t honor financial
commitments, do not obey law.
- Dependent (Overly dependent on others for advice and approval,
clingy with friends/lovers, fear abandonment)
- Dissociate = part with memory/self
- Multiple Personalities = Dissociative identity disorder.
- Rape victims – protecting themselves by removing themselves from
context. Treatment of Psychological Diso