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Lecture 5

PS101 Lecture 5: chapter 5 lecture

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Mindi Foster

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Chapter 5—Consciousness Relationship between consciousness and awareness Consciousness is an awareness of internal and external stimuli • Can you have one without the other? o aware but not conscious (coma) o conscious but not aware (mind wandering, task unrelated thoughts), occurs with automatic/familiar tasks • “unconscious thought” o Thought without attention ▪ Good for decision making, ignoring the stuff getting in the way of a resolution Circadian Rhythms (24 hour cycles) Biological clock, occurs mainly due to light, pattern of responses beginning with light (light-retinal receptors-superchiasmatic nucleus-pineal gland-melatonin to release (Dracula hormone comes out at night) • Disruptions to the 24-hr cycle -alertness begins to decline at 6:30 pm -decrease in body temperature at 8/9 pm, why you should take a bath before bed when having trouble sleeping -growth occurs through the night while sleeping -lack of sleep -jetlag -shift work Ultradian rhythms (Sleep) 1 90-120 minutes Awake: beta waves, BUSY, inconsistent pattern as variable levels of alertness Drowsy: alpha waves, exhibited during relaxation/meditation, tuned out, Stage 1 sleep: theta waves, alpha waves get wider, drifting in and out of sleep but easily awakened, slowing of breathing/heartbeat, capable of lucid dreaming until here Stage 2 sleep: sleep spindles, look like high brain activity (could be memory consolidation), if awoken you wont remember being asleep, insomniacs/elderly have trouble getting through this stage Slow wave sleep: stage 3 and 4, progressively more and more delta waves, deep breathing, sleep walking occurs, hormone is not yet released, muscles relaxed REM sleep: similarity in brain wave patterns to awake, active brain waves, random eye movements, heart rate and blood pressure up, genitals active, paralysis hormone prevents sleepwalking Babies spend more time in REM than adults We make up for REM deprivation by spending more time in REM later Sleep Deprivation (cortisol is sustained in the body, organs and immunity declines, increase in intensity • Partial o Reduced hours of sleep o Cognitive deficits 2 o Amygdala activity increases but your prefrontal cortex activity decreases (more emotional but less logical) • Selective o Selectively depriving people of REM, body seeks out more REM if deprived, memory consolidation, neurogenesis • 1,2,3,4,3,2,REM,2,3,4,3,2,REM (sleep cycle) takes approx. 90-120 minutes Sleep Disorders Insomnia o Hard to fall asleep (more common for young people) o Hard to stay asleep (cant get past stage ¾) o Early riser • Causes o depression o anxiety o pain • Treatments o Sedatives (work on inhibitory neurotransmitters) ▪ Addictive, carryover effects, decrease deep sleep, o Cognitive behavioral therapy (strategies to be a better sleeper) ▪ Restricting bed time, bed for sleep and sex only, Narcolepsy (sudden onset of sleep during wakefulness) Fall asleep midday, mid-alertness, very rare and very dangerous, cause unknown • Sleep apnea (breathing problems during sleep o Inability to get oxygen while sleeping, oxygen interruption • Nightmares vs night terrors o Bad dreams-wont be awoken out of REM o Nightmares-woken from REM, can be reduced by image rehearsal, usually occur because of anxiety/depression, high neuroticism o Night terrors- grow out of them, severe, wake up screaming in a panic • Somnambulism (sleepwalking) o During stage 3/4 before REM, paralysis hormone hasn’t been distributed throughout body, genetic, kids grow out of it, drugs or alcohol can cause this in adulthood, • REM sleep behaviour disorder o Paralysis hormone didn’t get distributed effectively, very rare, extreme because occurring during REM Dreaming • Commonality o Culture can affect what we dream about • Day residue o So does out “common day” o • Theories of why we dream o Wish Fulfillment 3 ▪ Freud, things we desire in life (unconscious) are so bad/dirty and cant be
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