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Lecture 12

PS101 Lecture 12: chapter 12 lecture (Part 2)

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Mindi Foster

Chapter 12—Personality • stable ways of responding across time/situations (traits) o see traits from a very young age, showing a certain personality trait will be shown stably across time and across situations • unique o we are all unique in how much we express personality traits o on a continuum The Big Five (OCEAN traits) • Extraversion (sociable, outgoing, talkative) o Vs introversion (withdrawn, quiet) o Positive emotionality- consequences that follow you, follow this trait ▪ More extroversion more people see you a having higher social status • Neuroticism (anxious, worried, moody) o Negative emotionality o Low in neuroticism (calm, easy going, even-tempered) o More neurotic you are- more negativity will follow (correlation not cause and effect), lower self esteem, lower physical and mental health, high risk of divorce • Openness to experience (imaginative, curious, tolerant, open to new ideas0 o Vs conventional/intolerant o More openness: politically liberal, low prejudice, high level of critical thinking • Agreeableness (good natured, warm, cooperative, trusting) o Vs argumentative, ruthless, suspicious o High in agreeableness: good leader, helping behaviour • Conscientiousness (reposnsible, self-disciplined, organized) o Conscientious person: good student, better friendships o Vs irresponsible, irrational Psychodynamics 1. Freud Argued that our behaviour/personality is a function of unconscious, personalities have been solidified by 4 years old 1 Levels of consciousness: Conscious: aware of Preconscious: thoughts that aren’t a part of all awareness (every day), memory that can spark something we haven’t thought about in a while, can be easily accessible Unconscious: primitive, instinctual, most desired (food, sex, aggression), lurk under surface, can damage personality without us knowing, personality disorders are caused from unconscious desires trying to rise to conscious level Elements of Personality: (try to resolve constructive desires without harming) ID: pleasure principle, driven to reach pleasure and avoid discomfort, completely unconscious, irrational, impulsive, immature, in search of gratification EGO: battles with Id, above and below consciousness, reality principle, desires logic, real, practical, safe, wants to help id because gratification must be provided, therefore provides id with gratification in appropriate and realistic ways SUPEREGO: mainly unconscious, internalization of external values/social norms, “should” of society, attempt to gratify in a moral and rigid way, How do we cope with unconscious desires/conflict? Psychosexual stages • Oral o Babies receive oral satisfaction, feeding o Learn what to take in 2 o Fixation/need wasn’t met: personality would reflect through overindulging or under- indulging, gullible, passive, dependent o Over eater, drinker and smoker • Anal o 2-3 years old, toilet training phase, satisfaction in controlling bowel movements (success) o Fixation at this phase: anal retentive (compulsive, controlling, uptight), anal expulsive (messy, disorderly, unorganized, disruptive, rebellious) • Phallic o 3-6 years old, kids receive satisfaction through masturbation o Oedipal complex (electra complex for young girls thinking that their mother cut off their penis): child begins to identify with same sex parents, development of gender identity, sexually desiring mothers therefore father is competition, reaction formation causing son to identify with father • Latency/Genital o Lack of focus on sexuality (repression), important part of personality to allow kids to form same sex friends o Genital Phase: sex motivation reappears at puberty 2. Jung’s difference of opinion • Collective unconscious (collection of ancestra
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