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Chapter 2-Psych.doc

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Lawrence Murphy

Description midterm-october 17 th 50 mc choice arrive at 6:20 and write for 1 hour Chapter 2 Scientific approach a search for laws theory-proven hypothesis-i.e theory of gravity figure 2.1  basic assumption:events are goverend by some lawful order  goal ◦ measurement and description ◦ understanding and prediction ◦ Application and control  operational definitions used to clarify precisely what is meant by each variable ◦ understanding and visually simplfying certain idea's (i.e emotions, visually expressing happiness)  participants or subjects are the ogranims whose behaviour is systemically observed in a study  Data collection techniques allow for empirical observation and measurement  Statistics are used to analyze daya and decide whether hypotheses were supported ◦ cannot be used to prove anything  finding are shared through reports at a scientific meeting and in scientific journal-periodicals that publish technical and scholary material ◦ advantages of the cientific method: clarity of communication and relative intolerance of error  Research methods: general stragegies for conducting scientific studies  Experiment=manipulation of one variable under controlled conditions so that resulting changes in another variable can be obseved ◦ detection of cause and effect relationships  Independent vairable=variable manipulated  dependent variable=variable affected by manipulation  experimental group-subjects who receceive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable  Control group-SIMILAR subjects who do not receive the special treatment ◦ Logic ▪ 2 groups alike in all respects (random) ▪ manipulate indepentent variable for only one group ▪ resulting differences in the two groups must be tdue to the independent variable  Extraneous and confounding variables  Expose a single group to different conditions ◦ Reduces extraneous variables  Manipulate more than one independent variable ◦ allows for study of interactions between variables  Use more than one dependent variable ◦ obtains a more complete picture of effect of the independent variable ◦ figure 2.2  Strengths: ◦ conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn  Weaknesses ◦ artificial nature of experiments ◦ ethical and pratical issues Descriptive/ correlational methods  methods used when a reasearches cannot manipulate the variables under study ◦ naturalistic obsevation ◦ case studies ◦ survey's  Allows researchers to describe patterns of behaviour and discover links or associating between variables but cannot imply causation
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