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chpt 15 summary.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Don Morgenson

Chapter 15-Treatment of Psychological Disorders ****pg. 682-683**** -Sigmund Freud was main founder of psychotherapy THERAPY -Types of Treatments: 1. Insight- “talk therapy”-talk through situation 2. Behavior- therapists work on changing people’s overt behaviours (ie. Phobia) through procedures such as classical conditioning 3. Biomedical- interventions into a person’s biological functioning –ie. Drug therapy or electroconvulsive (shock) therapy -many pple see seeking therapy as admitting personal weakness -therapists come from a variety of professional backgrounds. Clinical and councelling psychologists, psychiatrists, clinical social workers, psychiatric nurses, and councellors are the principal providers of therapeutic services -Psychologists-2 types: 1. Clinical psychologists-emphasizes the treatment of full-fledged disorders 2. Counseling psychologists-training is slanted towards the treatment of everyday adjustment problems -Psychiatrists: -physicians who specialize in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders –more likely to use psychoanalysis than group or behavior therapies INSIGHT THERAPIES -defn: involve verbal interactions intended to enhance clients’ self-knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior -Psychoanalysis- emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defences through techniques such as free association and transference -neuroses- anxiety-dominated disturbances –ie. phobic, panic, obsessive-compulsive, conversion disorders -free association: clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible -dream analysis: therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client’s dreams -interpretation: the therapsit’s attempts to explain the inner sig of the client’s thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviours -resistance: largely unconscious defensive manoeuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy -transference: occurs when clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives – the client transfers conflicting feelings about important pple onto the therapist -Psychoalalysis approaches to therapy-variations of Freud’s original approach to psychoanalysis-decendants of it -Client-centered therapy:-emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy-developed by Carl Rogers- sadi that personal distress is due to incongrucency/inconsistent btwn a perspn’s self-concept and reality – therapist key role is to maintain climate (below) and to provide clarification -According to Rogers, to create a warm, supportice, accepting climate, you need to have 3 condidions: 1. Genuineness-be honest 2. Unconditional positive regard 3. Emphathy -Emotional-focused couples therapy:-developed by Les Greenberg and Susan Johnson-mend relationhips -Positive psychotherapy- Martin Seligman-used mainly in treatment for depression-get person to think +vely about themselves -Group therapy-the simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group-approx 4-15pple (ideal #=8)-pple in the group often act as therapists for one another, exchanging insights and emotional support -spontaneous remission-a recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal treatment BEHAVIOUR THERAPIES -therapists make no attempt to help clients achieve grand insights about themselves -defn: therapies involve the app of learning principles to direct efforts to change clients’ maladaptive behaviours -based in 2 assumptions: 1. Behavior is a product of learning 2. What has been learned can be unlearned -Systematic desensitization: Systematic desensitization:  Defn: used to reduce phobic clients’ anxiety responses through counterconditioning  Joseph wolpe  Process involves 3 steps: 1)therapist helps client build an anxiety hierarchy (an ordered list of stimuli). 2)the client partakes in deep muscle relaxation. 3)client tries to work thro the hierarchy, learning to remain relaxed while imaginating each stimuli – client conquers imagined stimuli then confronts real stimuli -Counterconditioning-an attempt to reverse the process of classical conditioning by associating the crucial stimulus with a new c
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