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PS101 Chapter 2- Doing Psychological Research

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Mindi Foster

1 Chapter 2-Doing Psychological Research Eg. Domestication of pets is a good thing for humanity. Types of Descriptive Derive testable hypothesis. Studies (Classification of variables) -Make sure that it specifies relationships • Case Study (ex: Freud) a between events or variables. detailed description of one person (characteristic/trait/behavior that can be over time and in depth. Used in measured) clinical settings. Eg. Pet owners are healthier than non-pet owners. • Observational Study involves Variable #1- pet owners. more people. When you watch and Variable #2- health. record behavior without interfering with participants.  Want to be even more specific. Operational definitions a way of • Tests/ Assessment defining variables that specifies the instruments often a logistic way of collecting dat. operations or action we use to measure those variables. Precision is key. Uniform test taking and 1 Dog, sterile , 3 year old HealtIs your test measuringood scoring procedures to pressure –what you think it’s gather norms. The scores are measuring?happiness – consistent life satisfaction SStandardization ReReliability VValidity TTest- AAlternat Norms retest e Content CrCriterio Norms retest e Content n n foform 2 Scores Give two Your remain the versions content Does your same of the adequately test predict behaviours across two same reflects that are testing’s. test. your related to concept. your concept? Survey (a lot of tests put together in a mass format/ a combination of tests) o Biases  Volunteer ’s differ from non-volunteer. • Self-report data is subject to social desirability bias. (We want to appear in a positive light.) • Response bias phrasing your questions affects the results. Correlational studies • What is a correlation? A measure of how strongly two variables are related and the direction of that relations.ip o Direction positive or neg. correlati.n  Positive correlation: when something is increasing together OR decreasing together. Are they moving in the same direction? (The more you’re exposed to something, the more you like it.)  Negative correlation: (inverse relationship) the 3 variables change in different directions. The scores go in opposite directions. (The more you smoke, the less healthy you are) o Strength: coefficient of correlation (r) o The range that the strength correlation ranges from +1 to -1. -1 being perfect negative (for every one unit change in one variable the other variable changes one unit as well). +1 being perfect positive. A strong relationship is 7-10. A weak relationship is from .2-.3. 4 Advantages/Disadvantages of Correlational studies • Breadth of knowledge - a lot of information - Complex relationships . o Advantage • Illusory Correlations (sound like they go together, but don’t. Not empirically supported.) e.g. superstition. o Disadvantage • Lack of Causation a potential 3 variable associated with the other two variables. o Disadvantage +r(# appliances, birth control use) --------- Education ---------- Experimental Studies – When we test causation. 1. Manipulate something. 2. Control all else. a. Control group b. Random Assignment No scientific study is perfect, better studies can always be done. 5 Hyppothessss (pet ownnerss exxperiencce esss stress Indeepenndenntvaarabble Deepeendeent variable (whatthe expermeenter (what s meassuedd vares/maanpuuates asa funcion caausesto happen) ofhe IV)(outcome) Measuring stress Exxpeermeenntal A good control Coonntollconnditon condition is Coondition experimentalhe (he presence (absence ofthe V)) condition in every of he IV) possible way Give people a pet. No pet. except the IV Assign participants to either Experimental groups or Control groups via Random assignment: participants have equal chance of being assigned to either experimental or cont.ol condition 6 Why? Does R.A. help increase control? Non Random assignment: Does studying lead to good grades? (Independent variable) (Dependent variable) 7a 7d Experimental Control Participant1 High IQ Participant5 Low IQ Participant2 High IQ Participant6 Low IQ Participant3 High IQ Participant7 Low IQ Participant4 High IQ Participant8 Low IQ Results: A F You have not controlled for alternative e
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