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PS101 Chapter 4—The Brain

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Mindi Foster

Sends and receives Chapter 4—The Brain information The Nervous System Connects the rest Receives information from of the body to the the outside world and sends central nervous it to muscles, organs, etc.… system via bundles of axons (nerves). PePeripheral CeCentral Nervous NeNervous SySystem (CNS) SySystem (PNS) muscles, skin, glands, etc.… Bridges brain/body. Controls reflexes beSpinalck. Flight/flight response: Deals mostly with voluntary above - Sensory nerves.gthe neck. AAutonomi o Responsible for intake oft rate, SSomatic c sensations and sendingood flow, Nervous c them to CNS.ilation of pupils. Nervous NeNervous - Motor nerves. SSystem SSystem o “Motor” = moving. o Send information FROM CNS to the muscles. o Tell the body what to do. “Parachute”. Slows down the body afterwards. Conserves energy. CortisSSystem released. Increased appetite because cortisol makes BBrain you crave carbs to gain energy for the next fight or flight moment. PaParasympathet ic ic NeNervous SSystem Structure of Neurons Sending neuron Receiving neuron 1 Communication between Neurons Neurons= building blocks on nerves. 1. Incoming message (neurotransmitters) is received by DENDRITE. 2. Goes from the DENTRITE to the CELL BODY. 3. It then goes from the CELL BODY to the AXON (long, thin fiber covered by MYELIN SHEATH) a. Myelin Sheath is constructed of GLIA CELLS. i. Glia Cells provide nourishment and remove toxins/waste from the myelin sheath. ii. Node – message jumps from node to node. FUNCTION OF MYELIN SHEATH is 2-fold: - Speed. - Protection from adjacent signals. 4. To the AXON TERMINAL—deposits the information on receiving neuron. The more axons and dendrites you have, the more complex learning connections have occurred. 2  SYNAPSE 4. CONT’D: the axon doesn’t touch the receiving neuron. Instead, there is a SYNAPSE. 5. Synapse. - Synaptic bulb. - Synaptic vesicles, house neurotransmitters. - They open and close - Synaptic cleft (the space between the bulb and the receiving neuron.) 6. How do they open and close? -ACTION POTENTIAL. - Electrical impulse that occurs that is created by a change in voltage that allow synaptic vesicle to open. 7. Messages accepted if neurotransmitter fits receptor site. The communication between neurons is all or none = neurons fire or they don’t (on or off). Excitatory message = on switch. Inhibitory message = off switch. 3 Chemical Messages in the Nervous System Travels through blood. TraNeurotransmitters Show/farHormoneses. Fast/short distancers Too little leads to depres“Dracula SeratoninAffecthormone.”ppetite, Seratoninleep ImpMMelatonin sleep Voluntary movement: Too little: Parkinson’s Also responsible for pleasure. DDopamin “Love hormone.” Muscles and memory. ee Released when a Too little: Alzheimer’s. mother is breast- feeding. Highest peak: orgasm 4 Acetylcholin OdSeSexacil Endoapahinshri TTestessteron Endeneneins EEstrogen Also leads to depression. Active during emergency Released during an response. emergency response the same a
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