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Chapter 8 Social Behaviour.docx

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Kris Gerhardt

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2 Introduction • What is social psychology – Study of how social stimuli influence our behaviour – We are far more influenced by others than we realize – Covers a wide area of behaviour – How are attitudes changed? – Why do people help or fail to help in an emergency – 3 Explaining Others • In order to make judgments about people or cultures, we rely on internal explanations of their behaviour • Walk into a party – Someone smiles !! • How we take social information – And manipulate it 4 Attributing Causality • Attribution Theory – External (situational) attribution – Internal (dispositional) attribution – **also see text re: unstable vs. stable causes • Fritz Heider – common sense psychology – People prefer internal attributions over external ones – People are easy to notice – Situations are hard to see and evaluate 5 Fundamental Attribution Error (go back and make notes) • We infer dispositional motives for behaviour of others & discount situational factors – Students/profs/exam marks • Jones & Harris – anti-Castro speeches • Self Serving Bias • Just world hypothesis • Real world FAE 6 Why do we make FAEs • Perceptual Salience – Attention is on the person, not the situation • External factors you might ignore – ……what might you ignore or discount? • 1 7 Social Norms and Influences • Norms – Rules about how we are to supposed to act • Roles – Positions in society that are regulated by norms about how people in those positions should behave • Social Influence – Conforming because of another’s behaviour • Culture – Program of shared rules for behaviour in a society 8 Obedience • Milgrim classic obedience study – Video clip – Studying how far people would go in obeying orders – Shocks from 0 to 450 volts – Social scientists estimated < 5% would obey to 450v – In reality, 65% obeyed to 450V – No overt coercion – People will obey when they believe the instructions come from a legitimate authority ***regardless – We are not very good at predicting our own behaviour because we underestimate the power of the situation 9 Attitude Change • What is an attitude – A favourable or unfavourable evaluative reaction towards something. Exhibited in one’s beliefs, feelings or behaviour • 3 components – Affective (emotional) – Behavioural (visible) – Cognitive 10 Model of Attitude Change • Source – message – target • Credibility or believability – Expertise, prestige • Trustworthiness or self-interest – Self serving remarks are less influential • Intention – If intent to persuade is obvious, less influential – ‘overheard’ conversations are more influential 11 Role playing • Entrapment……. • Groups have well defined roles – Expectations of behaviour • Most of us belong to more than one group – Therefore, many different expectations of behaviour depending on situation • Potential costs
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