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Chapter 13 Development.docx

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Kris Gerhardt

1 IntroPsych Ch13 – Developmental Psychology 2 Introduction • What is developmental psychology • Cross sectional approach – Study in a single slice of time – How does „X‟ interact right now • Longitudinal approach – Study across time – How does „X‟ change over time • Developmental questions can often only be answered by longitudinal studies – Or successive cross sections • 3 From Conception to Birth Called a zygote, embryo or fetus UNTIL birth (then can be called a baby) • Germinal Stage (approximately 2 weeks) – Zygote • Embryonic Stage - Ectoderm (outer layer) - Mesoderm (middle layer) - Endoderm (inner layer – digestive system, etc.) Embryo lives in amniotic sac (fluid filled), which protects embryo and maintains constant temperature. • Fetal Stage (development of bone cells = fetus) starts at approximately week 9 - Age of viability (between week 22 and week 28) fetus is developed enough to survive outside mother • Newborn (can now be called a baby) 4 Teratogens • ANY environmental agents that interfere with normal differentiation and growth - Anything the mother ingests (knowingly or not) that affects growth (drugs, alcohol, nicotine, etc). - Stops the cells from growing the way they should – Malformations of organs & physical characteristics (arm stumps, deafness etc.) – Effects are worst during the period that individual structures are forming – Rubella (German measles - virus) / Thalidomide (drug developed to fight morning sickness in the 1950‟s, caused birth defects – such as missing limbs, deformities, etc.) • Not all embryos are equally affected • Same defect can be caused by different teratogens • A variety of effects by a single teratogen • The longer the exposure, the more serious harm • Long term effects are also influenced by postnatal environ. 5 Infant Reflexes (Video Clip) • Reflex – neonate organized pattern of behaviour (automatic responses to stimuli) • Survival reflexes (help the baby survive) – Enable the newborn to adapt to the environment • Primitive reflexes – Controlled by subcortical areas – disappear • Infant states – Levels of sleep and wakefulness 1 6 Survival Reflexes • Breathing • Eye blink • Pupillary (pupils expand and contract depending on light conditions) • Rooting (stroke baby‟s cheek, it will turn head toward you and open mouth) • Sucking (put something on inside of baby‟s lips, they suck) • Swallowing (put something in baby‟s mouth, fear the back, it swallows it) 7 Primitive Reflexes (will go away) • Babinski (stroke sole of baby‟s foot, they curl toes) – should disappear in 8 months • Palmar grasping (put pressure in baby‟s hand, they grasp) – should disappear between 4-6 months • Moro (shoulders back, head turtles – when startled) - should disappear between 4-6 months • Swimming (submerge baby in water, close eyes/mouth, arch head up and paddles up to the surface) – should disappear in 4 months • Stepping (hold baby up, they move legs as steps forward) – should disappear in 8 weeks, unless practiced 8 Reflex Significance • Provide adaptive means to respond right from day 1 • Diagnostic clues • Some reflexes disappear during development • Adulthood – Lack of proper functioning is an important diagnostic tool 9 Temperament (tendency to respond to something in predictable way) and Development • Hereditary influences – Components are genetically influenced. • Environmental influences on temperament – Home environment of siblings clearly influences positively toned aspects of temperament. • Activity level, irritability, sociability, and shyness are stable temperament components. • Children who are at the extremes (high/low) show more stability – Children who are at moderate levels (the majority) show higher levels of fluctuation. 10 Temperament and Development (cont.) • Scarr, Thomas/Chess - Children, in some ways, produce their own environment – Genetic make up is very important – There is not a 1:1 relationship between parenting style and later child temperament • Different children Different Strategies (listen to lecture again, make notes on this) – Difficult – Slow to warm up – Easy • Environmental impact 11 What Are Emotional Attachments? • Attachments are reciprocal relationships. • 7 months (primary attachment) – infants have an attachment figure – Then become attached to other individuals – Primary attachment figure is generally the mother (or the caregiver around most) – Secondary attachment could be father, grandparents, siblings, etc. (anyone that is around often) • Establishment of interactional synchrony – Coordinated interactions between infant and caregiver occur several times a day. – Important to establishing emotional attachments 2 12 Theories of Attachment (cont.) Infants of many species display the “kewpie-doll” (cuteness response) effect that makes them appear lovable and elicits caregivers‟ attention. 13 Two Attachment-Related Fears of Infancy • Stranger anxiety (Starts around 6 months) • Separation anxiety (anxiety expressed when physically separated from caregiver(s)) - Why do infants fear strangers and separations? – The ethological viewpoint states that a fear or avoidance response has become biologically programmed. – The cognitive-developmental viewpoint states that infants have developed stable schemes concerning their caregivers. 14 Individual Differences in Attachment • Assessing attachment security through the strange situation test – Secure attachment – infants have trust in caregiver, doesn‟t usually cry - is happy when mom returns – Resistant attachment – infants is upset when mother leaves, and when returns – sometimes anger – Avoidant attachment – infant not usually upset when mother leaves or returns – Disorganized/disoriented attachment - confusion 15 The Prelinguistic Period • The ability to discriminate speech from nonspeech and to differentiate a variety of speechlike sounds is either innate or acquired in the first few days of life. – Intonational cues are an important aspect of learning to understand speech. • Producing sounds: The infant's prelinguistic vocalizations – Cooing (vowel sounds) – Babbling (repetitive vowel and consonant combinations) starts at approx. 4-6 months • What do prelinguistic infants know about language and communication? – Gestures and nonverbal responses begin by 8 to 10 months of age. – Receptive language is ahead of productive language. (ability to comprehend language is virtually always ahead of ability to produce language) 16 The Holophrastic Period • Holophrase: A single word that seems to represent an entire sentence's worth of meaning (ex: ball!) • Early semantics: Building a vocabulary is a one-word-at-a-time process. • Attaching meaning to words: Fast mapping (meaning of a word is learned after hearing it a few times) – Common errors in word use •Overextension: Using a word to refer to a wider variety of objects or events than an adult would •Underextension: Tendency to use a general word to refer to a smaller range of objects than an adult would 17 The Telegraphic Period (listen to this section again for age info) • Telegraphic speech contains only critical content words, such as nouns, verbs, and adjectives, while leaving out articles, prepositions, and auxiliary verbs. • Telegraphic speech varies in meaning according to context; semantics can be differ
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