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Memory.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Kris Gerhardt
Semester
Fall

Description
1 IntroPsych Chapter 10 – Memory 2 Introduction • Cognitive Psychology – How we take in, process, store and interpret – Study mental processes – Memory – Concept formation • Memory – Usually used to bring past experience to consciousness – Different ways of remembering (specific things, general concepts, knowledge, skils) – Are all memories recalled in the same way? 3 Memory Analogies • We draw analogies between known and unknown – Computer – both mind and computer process info. – Memory and a camera or video recorder – Photographic memory – Storage of repeated daily events ?? • Reconstructing the past – What happens when we remember? – Retrieval vs. reconstruction – Confabulation 4 Models of Memory • Multiple Systems of Memory • 3 box model – One of many • Sensory Memory • Short Term Memory • Long Term Memory • Encoding / Storage / Retrieval 5 Sensory Memory • Also labeled Iconic Memory • Literal copy – very brief • Visual Sensory register • Auditory Echoic storage • Capacity is extremely large 6 Short Term Memory • Information acoustically encoded (sound) • Approx. 30 second duration • Capacity of 7 +/- 2 (5-9 things, can be held in your short term memory) • Chunking (Need long term memory in order to chunk properly) – Group information into larger units – Interaction between STM & LTM 1 – Area of expertise • Maintenance rehearsal (keeping info in short term memory) • A component of Working Memory 7 Working Memory • Temporary storage or workspace • Active Memory – Must work with information to prevent decay • Set of control processes for manipulation of information in temporary storage – Original view was competition for space – Current view is of multiple systems that do NOT compete – Visual, verbal and a central executive 8 Long Term Memory • Information stored semantically (by meaning) • Capacity is believed to be unlimited / permanent – Encoding (putting info into a form that the memory can use), Storage, Retrieval • Serial Position Effect – free recall – Recency effect – Primacy effect – The effect of STM/Working & LTM – Delayed recall – Changing rate of presentation 9 The serial-position curve of memory 10 Slowing the rate of presentation does not effect recency but does have an impact on the rest of the curve 11 Working memory and LTM • WM – a conscious workspace – Not just a gateway to LTM • How distinct are WM & LTM – In many ways, these 2 functions are distinct – Info can be stored and manipulated with little effort • Interactions between WM & LTM – Words more easily remembered than nonsense syllables – Brief delays help with recall of semant
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