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Chapter 14 Personality.docx

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Kris Gerhardt

1 Definition of Personality (no actual formal existence – can’t be found or “taken”) • Hypothetical constructs – Observations, constructs, relationships • Definition of personality: Consistency of behaviour across situations and time • Theories – Definitions what is personality? – Organization and structure how is personality organized? What is the structure in individuals? – Development how does personality develop? Or does it develop? 2 Approaches to Personality • Assumptions about constructs – Each approach attempts to map constructs to „personality‟ – No approach is better/worse than any other • Each theory adopts one perspective – Therefore no theory is necessarily more correct than any other theory – Nomothetic – allindividuals – Focuses on similarities – Ideographic – focus on the individual – Focuses on dissimilarities • Longest history of any field in Psychology • Tend to be broader than other approaches • Are extremely difficult to test – Most are post-dictive (uses theory to explain a reaction, AFTER the situation) rather than pre-dictive 3 Type Approach • Assumes small number of personality types • Emphasizes biological factors – you‟re born with the personality you have, no development • Very few prevalent Type theories in current use – Sheldon‟s somatotype theory (common physical characteristics indicate similar personality traits) 4 Trait Approach (objective – often used formally) • Nomothetic approach • A set of characteristics that can be labeled – This is „lay‟ person personality • Biological based – Very little, if any, development – Focus on “core” traits, fairly predictable • Differences in the number of traits – If too many, description is hard – If too few, differentiation between theories is hard • The Big 5 5 Psychodynamic Approach • Personality as the response patterns of internal psychic structures – Emphasis on the unconscious • Freud‟s psychoanalytic is the prototype • Interactionist view of development • Discussion of human motivation Development influences personality (mostly between ages 1-12, especially before 7) • Nomothetic approach – data is clinical 6 Humanist Approach • One of the newer approaches Says there is a motivating force that pushes you to do something • Focus is on the individual NOT group 1 – Therefore approach is Ideographic 2 • Belief in the positive nature of humans • Emphasis is on the person as a whole • Perception of situations is critical to development of personality Personality never stops developing • Data gathered using subjective reports – by asking people questions ( SUBJECTIVE) 7 Behavioural/Learning Approach • Nomothetic approach – data is objective (concrete observation of behaviours & formally organizes them ) • Personality as a set of learned responses • Not very concerned with description of different personalities *Not different personality, but more about different responses to stimuli instead – Rather, descriptions of behaviour patterns • Based on the work of John Watson – Trying to move Personality theory into the realm of scientific study (measurable) 8 Cognitive Approach • The newest approach (also Nomothetic) • Stress the information processing aspect of human development – The importance of internal processes • Usually involve the integration of Cognitive and Behavioural theories • Data is usually objective 9 Freud: Introduction • Motivation – We select certain goals – What behaviour is consistent with these goals – Why do we behave the way we behave? • Internal Structures – Conscious vs. unconscious – Dynamic interaction between conscious and unconscious • Human beings are Hedonistic (avoid pain, seek pleasure) – Eros – sexual instinct – Thanatos – aggressive (death) instinct – Libido – energy source that drives the instincts (eros and thanatos) – Libido is release when you satisfy an instinct, if you don‟t satisfy the instinct – there is tension 10 Sigmund Freud: Internal Structures • Id (only thing we have at birth – contains libido) *Encourages you to gratify your biological needs – Present at birth, unconscious – Storehouse of libido – Pleasure principle – if it feels good….do it. – Primary process – Like a child, wants what it wants NOW. • Ego – develops with external interaction (experiences in the world) – Unconscious, conscious – Reality principle – if it feels good…do it…if it is safe (avoids the pain) – The ego plans things (evaluates info from the outside world) – Makes the id postpone gratification when necessary – Secondary Process • Super Ego – origin Develops during late childhood to early adolescence – Internalized morality 3 – morality principle – (if it feels good – do it, but only if its safe, and only if its moral) – Conscience (makes you feel bad if you don‟t follow morals) and ego-ideal (feel good if you follow morals) – A key concept in Freudian theory is conflict. 11 Freud: Psychosexual Stages 4 • Personality is fixed by puberty – But shaped by experiences from 0-6 yrs • 5 stages – Oral(0-1); Anal(1-3)control of feces; Phallic(3-6)when children put hands in their pants ; – Latency(7-11)social separation of genders; Genital(puberty to adulthood)sexual gratification • Oedipus complex – Starts during Phallic stage – The origin of the Super Ego – Males fixate on their mother, desire to eliminate dad – *Castration anxiety, fear their father will take away their penis (because it‟s the focus of their pleasure) – Can‟t get rid of dad out of fear, so they must become more like their father to obtain their mother – Females (also c
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