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PS101 Lecture - October 26 2011.docx

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Iuliana Baciu

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PS101 Lecture – Variations in Consciousness - Wednesday, October 26 2011: Black = content from lecture Red = additional content from PowerPoint Blue = content in lecture that she said Activity: Interpretations of Dreams:  Do they include more senses? 2, 1, 1, 1,  Are you a bystander and you involved in the dream? 5, 5, 5, 5  Was it not relevant to your life or was it relevant? 5, 5, 5, 5  Was it vivid? 1, 1, 1, 1  Average ratings - 49/16 = 3.0625  Ex – you may determine the extent to which your fantasies reflect your need to achieve – not doing well in school and telling yourself it doesn’t matter while your daydreams… Activity: visualizing eating lemon – what did you experience from the description of the lemon? Hypnosis: Altered State of Consciousness or Role Playing?  Hypnosis = a systematic procedure that increases suggestibility, as well as relaxation, narrowed attention, and enhanced fantasy  Hypnotic susceptibility: means people differ in how easily they can be hypnotized  10-20% of people seem very susceptible to hypnotic suggestion; same people show the capacity to immerse themselves in activities that require imagination (ex – reading a book, listening to music) - Research shows that people who are highly susceptible to hypnosis are just as responsive to suggestion without being hypnotized – Kirsch and Braffman (1999) call this imaginative suggestibility and argue that future research should focus on this broader trait  10% of people can’t be hypnotized at all (Hilgard, 1965)  Can be reliably measured with the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale  Effects produced through hypnosis:  Anesthesia  Sensory distributions and hallucinations  Disinhibition - (doing things you would normally be more inhibited about doing, like taking off your clothes in public)  Posthypnotic suggestions and amnesia – allows people to forget what happened, influences of suggestions made during the hypnosis session on subjects’ later behaviour (“you will remember nothing that occurred during your hypnotized state”)  Researchers argue about whether hypnosis is really an altered state of awareness or if it is simply people doing what they think they are supposed to do when they are hypnotized…the dissociation hypothesis holds that hypnosis splits consciousness into two streams…divided consciousness Video: Hypnosis and Surgery Pain:  patients in hypnosis training group had less pain, were less anxious  it’s effectiveness depends on how susceptible that person is to be hypnotized (suggestibility) Meditation:  Meditation = practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control  Effects of meditation:  Decreased heart rate, respiration rate, etc., and a relaxed EEG, with predominant theta and alpha rhythm patterns  New research using the CT scan to track blood flow in the brain in experienced Tibetan Buddhist meditators shows high activity in the prefrontal cortex (an area important for focused attention) and low activity in parts of the parietal lobe that are known to process information about the body’s location in space - this may explain some of the transcendent experiences reported by many meditators  Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation (TM)  All three of these are rooted in Eastern religions; however, many who meditate do so separately from religious practice  Potential physiological benefits: Similar to effective relaxation procedures? Unique to meditation? More research needed!! - Meditation results in a potentially beneficial physiological state whereby bodily arousal is suppressed, but it is unclear how meditation differs from other systematic relaxation training procedures which produce very similar effect
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