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PS101 Lecture - Nov. 4th 2011.docx

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Iuliana Baciu

th PS101 Lecture - Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment – Nov. 4 2011: Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness:  The concept of personality is used to explain the stability in a person’s behaviour over time and across situations (consistency) and the behavioural differences among people reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness)  Personality refers to an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioural traits  Personality traits  Dispositions and dimensions  A personality trait is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations - adjectives like honest, moody, impulsive, and excitable describe dispositions that represent personality traits  In the 1950’s and 60’s, Raymond Cattell used the procedure of factor analysis – correlating many variables to identify closely related clusters of variables – to reduce Gordon Allport’s (1937) list of thousands of personality traits to just 16 basic dimensions. He also developed a test called the 16 PF to measure where a person falls along these 16 personality dimensions.  Five-Factor Model - McCrae and Costa:  extraversion – high extraversion: outgoing sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, and gregarious – sometimes referred to as positive emotionality  neuroticism – high neuroticism: anxious, self-conscious, hostile, insecure, vulnerable – sometimes referred to as negative emotionality  openness to experience – associated with curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, unconventional attitudes  agreeableness – associated with people who are sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, and straight- forward… with roots in temperament (speed of reacting to situations and how accurate the reaction - highly genetic)  conscientiousness – diligent, disciplined, well-organized, dependable, and punctual - some models refer to this trait as constraint - related to high productivity in a variety of occupational areas  Personality traits expressed very evidently in Western Cultures, but more subtle in Traditional Cultures – do not see this uniqueness within people, they seem to act the same way in a variety of situations – affects interpersonality relationships the most within diff. cultures Styles of Responding Activity: -respond passively - agreeableness, manipulatively, aggressively – neuroticism, extraversion, assertively – extraversion, agreeableness 1. passive 2. aggressive 3. assertive 4. assertive Psychodynamic Perspectives:  Psychodynamic theories include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental processes.  Feud’s psychoanalytic theory (1901, 1924, 1940): This theory grew out of his decades of interactions with his clients. This theory focuses on the influence of early childhood experiences, unconscious motives and conflicts, and the methods people use to cope with sexual and aggressive urges.  structure of personality (Freud divided personality into 3 components): o Id – the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle, which demands immediate gratification and engages in primary-process thinking (primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented). o Ego – the decision making component of personalit
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