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Organization of the Nervous System Lecture Note.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Iuliana Baciu

PS101: Organization of the Nervous System: October 3 , 2011  What are the parts of the human nervous system? (NS)  What are the parts of the central NS? What are the parts of the peripheral NS?  What are functions of various parts of the brain?  Research methods in the study of the brain and behaviour – what are they? Human Nervous System:  Central Nervous System  Hindbrain  Midbrain  Forebrain  Peripheral Nervous System: nerves outside the brain and spine; nerves are groups of neuron axons routed together  Somatic Nervous System  Autonomic Nervous System Central Nervous System:  Brain  Spinal Cord – connects rest of body with brain through peripheral nervous system (axons that carry info from sensors to brain and from brain to motor neurons) - Extension of the brain Both protected by meninges Both nourished and cushioned by cerebrospinal fluid The Brain:  Hindbrain  Cerebellum  Medulla  Pons  Midbrain  b/w the hindbrain and forebrain  reticular formation running through hindbrain and midbrain  Forebrain  thalamus  hypothalamus  limbic system  cerebrum The Brain and Behaviour:  Hindbrain:  Cerebellum - coordination of movement; sense of physical balance  Medulla – unconscious, vital functions (circulating blood, breathing, muscle tone maintenance, regulating reflexes: sneezing, coughing, salivating)  Pons – the bridge b/w the brainstem and cerebellum – sleep and arousal (reticular formation)  Midbrain:  Integrating sensory processes: hearing and vision  Site of dopamine-releasing neurons (voluntary movements)  Degeneration of one of structures here – decline in dopamine synthesis (Parkinson`s disease)  Reticular formation – regulation of sleep and arousal; modulation of muscle reflexes, breathing, pain perception  Forebrain:  Thalamus – primary integration of sensory info (except smell); relay this info to specific parts of cerebral cortex  Hypothalamus – regulator of basic biological needs related to survival (``4 F`s`` - fighting, fleeing, feeding, mating); control of autonomic NS; regulator of endocrine syst., thirst and temp. regulation  Limbic system  Cerebrum  Forebrain:  Thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebrum  Limbic system – amygdala and hippocampus; but NOT A WELL-DEFINED ANATOMICAL SYSTEM ( + part of thalamus and hypothalamus) - Regulation of emotions incl. pleasure, memory (hippocampus) and motivation (self- stimulation) - Medial forebrain bundle in hypothalamus = dopamine-releasing neurons (biological area involved in reward)  Forebrain:  Thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic syst.  Cerebrum: - Right and left hemisphere connected through corpus callosum - Occipital, parietal, temporal, frontal lobe in each hemisphere Cerebrum:  Occipital lobe – primary visual cortex (visual processing begins)  Parietal lobe:  Sense of touch – primary somatosensory cortex  Area for integrating visual input  Area for monitoring body`s position in space  Temporal lobe:  Primary auditory cortex (left – speech and language comprehension)  Frontal lobe;  Primary motor cortex (controls movement of muscles)  Prefrontal cortex – mystery! Very large! High-order functions (ex – behavioural planning, working memory, reasoning about object, event, and object-event relationships = executive function (controls thought processes)) Peripheral Nervous System:  Nerves outside brain and spinal cord  Somatic Nervous System: nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors  Afferent and efferent nerve fibres  Nerves contain both types of axons (two-way streets)  Autonomic
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