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PS101 Lecture - Nov. 7th 2011.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Iuliana Baciu

th PS101 Lecture – Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment – Monday, Nov. 7 2011: Freudian Structures of the Mind Video:  Ego is the rational self  Superego – society determines what’s right and wrong  It often conflicts with ego/superego  Meanings of actions are disguised (in unconscious) Freudian Contribution to Psych Video:  He viewed brain as complex neuron network  Comes from Europe – where industrial revolution occurred  Freud always asked patient what they could remember, and to say everything that came to mind for the dream as a whole and also to recall every detail of the dream  He saw animals like dreams – they are primitive, selfish, and have sexual desires  Treated patients with hysteria (twitches that led to complete paralysis) unsuccessfully with hypnosis Other Psychodynamic Theorists:  Carl Jung:  Analytical Psych o He proposed that unconscious mind is composed of 2 layers: personal unconscious (which houses material that isn’t within one’s conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten) and collective unconscious (which houses latent memory traces inherited from people’s ancestral past) o Carl Jung called these ancestral memories archetypes: emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning – the mandala (oval around people – sense of perfection) o He was the first to describe the introverted (inner-directed) and extroverted (outer-directed) personality types  Alfred Adler:  Individual Psych o Striving for superiority – a universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life’s challenges o Compensation – where everyone feels some inferiority and works to overcome it o Inferiority complex/overcompensation – when the feelings are excessive, an inferiority complex can result (if aren`t given superiority, they show off)  People can also conceal, even from themselves, their feelings of inferiority, resulting in overcompensation – seeking status and power, and flaunting their success to cover up underlying inferiority. o Birth order –Adler was also the first to stress the possible importance of birth order as a factor governing personality – ex – middle child complex The mandorla or the nimbus is an iconographic symbol in the shape of a circle or an almond-shaped oval signifying heaven, Divine Glory, or Light. Mandorla is Italian for ―almond.‖ It is an ancient symbol of two circles coming together and overlapping one another to form an almond shape in the middle. Jensen (1996) describes the mandorla as similar to the image of two mandalas (Sanskrit for circle) merging together until an almond shape is formed in the center. The mandorla is one of the clearest and most majestic attributes of Christ in iconography. With it, the glorified body of Christ is depicted beyond the earthly plane of being. Christ's garments are usually bright and worked with gold when shown in this manner. It is also used for the Mother of God in those cases when it has to represent her glory beyond the earthly plane. A mandorla usually consists of three concentric circles most often of different shades of blue pierced by rays of light issuing from subject. The early Christians used the symbol as a method to describe the coming together of heaven and earth, between the divine and human. The Mandorla is now thought to be older than both religions. Mandala ( ) is a Sanskrit word that means "circle". In the Hindu and Buddhist religious traditions, their sacred art often takes a mandala form. The basic form of most Hindu and Buddhist ma[1][2] is a square with four gates containing a circle with a center point. Each gate is in the shape of a T. These mandalas, concentric diagrams, have spiritual and ritual significance in both Buddhism and Hinduism. [3][4The term is of Hindu origin and appears in the Rig Veda as the name of the sections of the work, but is also used in other Indian religions, particularly Buddhism. In the Tibetan branch of Vajrayana Buddhism, mandalas have been developed into sandpainting. They are also a key part of anuttarayoga tantra meditation practices. Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives:  Pros  Insights Regarding:  unconscious  role of internal conflict  importance of early childhood experiences  Cons:  poor testablility  inadequate empirical evidence  sexist views (male-centred views) Erikson`s Theory:  Erik Erikson accepted basic constructs of Freud`s theory, but enlarged theory to include other factors such as culture and contemporary issues  8 age-related stages (5 during childhood and adolescence)  Each stage is characterized by a specific crisis that the individual must resolve
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