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Lawrence Murphy

 The Nervous System  CNS (central nervous system)  Receives, processes, interprets, and stores incoming sensory info  Sends out messages to muscles, glands, organs  Hindbrain: reticular formation, cerebellum, pons, medulla  Midbrain: reticular formation  Forebrain: thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, cerebrum  PNS (peripheral nervous system)  Handles input and output from CNS  All portions of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord  Somatic nervous system:  Autonomic nervous system:  Central Nervous System:  Two components: brain and spinal cord  Spinal cord  Bridge b/w brain and parts of body below neck  Spinal nerves protected by spinal column  Enables spinal reflexes  Peripheral Nervous System:  Stuff outside brain and spinal cord  Two subdivisions: messages carried through sensory and motor nerves  Somatic nervous system:  Nerves connected to sensory receptors and skeletal muscles  Autonomic nervous system:  Regulates functioning of blood vessels, glands, and internal organs  Contains sympathetic and parasympathetic systems  Sympathetic:  Fight or flight symptoms  MOBILIZE  Parasympathetic:  In order to restore normal levels/behaviour  CONSERVE  The ability/degree to which one "mobilizes" or "conserves" varies from person-to-person  Communication in the Nervous System  Nervous System is made up of:  Neurons:  Cells that conduct electrochemical signals; basic unit of nervous system  Part electric, part chemical; electrical signal tells cell to release chemical  Glia:  Cells that support, nurture, and insulate neurons  remove debris when neurons die  enhance the formation & maintenance of neural connections  modify neural functioning  Structure of Neuron  ~100 billion neurons in brain  They vary in size and shape  Chemicals are located in synapse; neurotransmitters are the chemicals released from synapse  Dendrites  Branch-like fibres that receive info from other neurons and transmit towards cell body  Cell body  Keeps neuron alive and plays key role in determining whether neuron will "fire" (emit a signal)  Axon  Extending fibre that conducts impulse away from cell body and transmits to other cells  Branches at end called axon terminals  May be collected together in bundles called nerves  The Myelin Sheath  Many axons are insulated by surrounding layer of fatty material --> myelin sheath  In CNS, it's made up of glial cells  Constrictions in covering (nodes) divide myelin into segments  Purpose to speed conduction of neural impulses and prevent interference from neighbouring signals  Neurons in the News  Neurogenesis: production of new neurons from immature stem cells  Stem cells:  Immature cells that renew themselves and have potential to develop into mature cells  Stem cells from early embryos can develop into any cell type  Fertilized ovum --> cluster of cells --> stem cell --> pancreatic cells, liver cells, nerve cells, etc.  Controversy over stem cell research due to discrepancy in terms of when a life begins  Stem-Cell Research  Embryonic stem cells can differentiate into any type of cell; adult stem cells limited  Use is controversial and surrounded by ethical debates regarding extraction*  Most promising
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