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Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Mindi Foster
Semester
Fall

Description
WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? - ‘Pop psych’ is popular psychology found in television, internet or books - Pop psych is the ‘ten step guide’ to solve any problem, it gives you an easy way out as opposed to real psychology which analyses the mind to come up with a reasonable plan - Psychology is empirical information gathered by scientific research which allows a reader to become more informed as opposed to just looking for a quick fix - Psychology is not just about emotional or mental problems, it is about learning the thought process behind actions as well as how other receive and feel - PSYCHOLOGY - concerned with behavior and mental process and how they are effected by someone or something’s physical, mental or external environment/state - It is about the methods, analysis, finding and interpretations Psychology, pseudoscience and popular opinion - Psychobabble: pseudoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of psychological and scientific sounding language. - Promises easy fixes to unhappiness, challenges and problems - Play on love for technology, attracting the consumer - Puts unrealistic and untrue ideas in the heads of society, allowing students to enter introductory classes assuming wrong stereotypes - 90 introductory students, 36 true or false question questionnaire, by Annette Kujawski Taylor and Patricia Kowalski - Accuracy of 38.5% - Allows you to find that common sense and popular opinion are frequently unreliable - Psychologists strive not to only discover a new phenomena an correct mistaken ideas nut also to deepen our understanding of an already familiar world Thinking critically and creatively about psychology - Critical thinking: ability and willing ness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote - Able to look for flaws in arguments and to resist claims that have no support - Not merely negative thinking, just critical and precise - Ability to be creative and constructive - Without critical thinking people cannot formulate a rational argument or see through misleading things that play on their emotions - Open mindedness does not mean that all opinions are created equal ad that everybody beliefs are as good as anyone else’s - An opinion if it ignores reality is not equal to any other CRITICA THINKING 1. Ask questions and be wiling to wonder - Receive wisdom but question theories - Look for questions asked but not answered 2. Define your terms - Be specific in question asking - Vague or poorly defined terms can lead to misleading or incomplete answers - The definition makes all the difference 3. Examine the evidence - Excepting a conclusion without evidence or expecting others to do so is a sign of lazy thinking - Sometimes checking the reliability of the evidence and where it came from is not practical, than it is usually considered a reliable source - Reliable source: education or experience in the field in which they claim expertise 4. Analyze assumptions and biases - Identify and evaluate unspoken assumptions - When assumptions make us ignore evidence it becomes a bias 5. Avoid emotional reasoning - When gut feelings can replace clear thinking the results can be dangerous - Emotional conviction alone cannot settle and argument - Think about why you are disagreeing 6. Don’t oversimplify - Resists easy generalizations - A sense of control have many important benefits but sometimes it is best to go with the flow - Common form of oversimplification – argument by anecdote - Get more evidence before drawing sweeping conclusions 7. Consider other interpretations - Creatively generate as many reasonable explanations of the topic at hand as possible before settling on the most likely one 8. Tolerate Uncertainty - Sometimes there is little or no evidence to examine - Be willing to accept the state of uncertainty - Does not mean to abandon all beliefs and convictions Psychology’s Past Psychologists always wanted to describe, predict, understand and modify behavior in order to add to human knowledge and increase happiness. - Past psychologists were less biased to empirical evidence, more anecdotal evidence Hippocrates (460 BCE – 377 BCE): Greek physician, founder of modern medicine - Figured out the brain is the source of human emotion John Locke (1632-1704): Emotions and thought work by association made with ideas tied to experience. Phrenology (early 1800’s): Lack of empirical methods created discrepancies in psychological information. - Inspired by Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) - Different sections of the brain accounted for different personality traits - Bumps on the skull displayed areas of the personality that were larger than others - A form of pseudoscience Modern Psychology - 1879 the first psychological lab was officially established in Germany - Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) - Trained in medicine and philosophy but wrote for psychology and many other fields - Started the first training for psychologists - Mark Baldwin, Wundt’s student, worked at the university of Toronto (1889) and helped found modern psychology in Canada - Wundt and his training towards students focused on sensation, perception, reaction times, imagery, and attention; avoided learning personality and abnormal behavior - The goal was to break behavior down into its most basic elements - Wundt’s methods were found too subjective - He is credited with making psychology a known science Three Early Psychologies Structuralism – E.B. Titchener (1867-1927) - Wundt’s student - Similar approach to Wundt but gave it the name o Hope to analyze sensation, images, and feeling into basic elements - “What had disturbed us was… the implication that human life, apparently so colourful and so intensely dynamic, is actually a frightful bore.” – Wolfgang Kohler (1959) o The problem of what was next after the analysis of senses - Their experiments consisted of conflicting reports from the various perspectives of introspectors Functionalism – emphasized the function or purpose of behavior (instead of analysis or description) - William James (1842-1910); American philosopher, physician and psychologist - Claimed Wundt’s form of research was a waste of time o Attempting to grasp the nature of the mind through introspection is “like seizing a spinning top to catch its motion, or trying to turn up the gas quickly enough to see how the darkness looks.” (Pointless and almost impossible) - Functionalists asked why and how instead of what - Charles Darwin (1809-1882) - Wanted to know how specific behaviors and mental process help a person or animal adapt to their environment - Looked for underlying cause and practical consequence of these behaviors and processes - Pick and choose among many methods; broadened study of psychology to include children, animals, religious experiences and the “stream of consciousness” - Stream of consciousness: describes the way thoughts flow like a river - Lacked precise theory or program or research so was short lived Psychoanalysis – nineteenth century - North America developed Chapter 2 10/2/2012 10:06:00 AM Chapter 2-Doing Psychological Research  Hunch: domestication of animals is good for humanity  Derive testable hypothesis  Must be specific  Specify relationships between event or variable (a measurable trait)  Ex: pet owners are healthier than non pet owners (2 variables)  Predictions with operational definitions (extremely specific)  Predictions with operational definitions are a way of defining your variables that specifies the action/operation used to measure that variable  Our operational definition of health is “how happy are you on a 1 to 10 scale” Pet owner  Four year old dog in our residence  Neutered males and females  How it affects our happiness Types of Descriptive Studies Case  Detailed description of one person  Look at one family before and after living with a dog, measure their happiness Observational  Watch/record behavior without interfering in it Tests/assessment instrument  Objective (awareness)  Projective (less aware/automatic) Standardization: uniform test taking and scoring procedures Norms: established standards of performance Ex: BD ranges from 0-63, after testing thousands we know the norm score for how depressed they are Ex: mild: score of 14-19 Reliability: provides consistent scores Test retest: do you score the same thing twice Alternate form reliability: 2 versions of the same test, expect to get the same score on both versions Validity: measures the concept we think it does Content: does the content reflect the trait or behavior you’re measuring? Criterion: does the test predict behaviors related to the trait/behavior you’re measuring? Standardization Reliability Validity Test- Alternate Norms retest Content Criterion form Survey  Many tests put together  Ex: “mass testing” in PREP o Biases  Volunteer  Are you getting the results because they reflect everyone’s behavior, or something about volunteer behavior  Self-report data  People want to appear in a positive light  Ex: sexual surveys  Response bias  How we phrase the question will affect the answer Correlational studies  What is a correlation? A measure of how strongly and in what direction two variables are related o Direction Positive correlation  Scores increase together or decrease together  Ex: studying, good grades  Height, weight Negative correlation  Inverse relationship, scores move in the opposite direction  One increases the other decreases  Ex: the more absences you have the lower your exam scores are  Smoking and health, flossing and tooth decay, passion and commitment  The more passionate we are, the less committed we are, the less passionate we are the more committed we are o Strength: coefficient of correlation (r)  Ranges from +1 to -1  +1 = perfect pos. correlation  -1 = perfect neg. correlation  For every 1 unit increase or decrease (change) in one variable, the second variable also increases or decreases 1 unit  -.7 to -.9 and .7 to .9 are strong relationships (like height and weight)  height and weight (pos.), flossing and tooth decay (neg.)  GRE and success in grad school (weak pos. correlation), education and number of children (weak neg. correlation) Advantages/Disadvantages of Correlational Studies  Breadth of knowledge (Advantage) o Lots of information o Complex relationship  Illusory Correlations o Apparent association, not empirically supported. Ex. superstitions  Lack of Causation o r(# appliances, birth control use) o # appliances-> amount of education -> birth control use o The two are accidental because of the middle variable o Because variable 3 may explain the r, causation can not be implied Experimental Studies- When we test causation 1. Manipulate something 2. Try to control other variables (Control group, random assignment)  If all else is equal, manipulated caused the outcome o Hypothesis (pet owners experience less stress) o Independent Variable  what the experimenter varies/manipulates/causes to happen (pet owner giving a pet) o Dependent Variable  What is measured as a function (outcome) of the IV (stress) o Experimental Condition (independent variable)  The presence of the IV (giving the pet) o Control condition (independent variable)  Absence of the IV (don’t give a pet)  A good control condition is similar to the exp condition in every aspect other than IV Hyppothessss (pet owneers exxperience esss stresss nddepeendeent variable Deepeendeent varabble whhat he expermeenter (whhats meeasured vares/maanpulates as afuncton caussesto happen) oftheIV) Exxperimeental Coonttollconnditonn Connditonn the pessence (absence of he V)) ofthe V)) Random Assignment – Creates an equal playing field  Assign participants to either exp or control. Via ransom assignment: Participants have equal change of being assigned to either experimental or control condition  Why? Does it increase control Experimental Control Participant1 High IQ Participant5 Low IQ Participant2 Low IQ Participant6 High IQ Participant3 Low IQ Participant7 High IQ Participant4 High IQ Participant8 Low IQ Results A F Then all the other variables that could affect our DV get randomized across groups/ conditions The conditions equal with the exception of IV Non Random Assignment  Does Studying (IV) lead to good grades (DV)? Experimental Control Participant1 High IQ Participant5 Low IQ Participant2 High IQ Participant6 Low IQ Participant3 High IQ Participant7 Low IQ Participant4 High IQ Participant8 Low IQ Results A F Grades Studying did not necessarily cause grade differences because we did not control for IQ Advantage / Disadvantages of Experiments · Cause/ Effect o Adv · Experimenter effects (unintended changes in participant behaviour due to experimenter expectations) o Ex. Told teachers certain students were ‘late bloomers’, despite all having same level of IQ · External validity, double blind study o Does it apply in the real world  Take experiment into field Evaluating Data with Statistics  Visually view the frequency distribution o Distribution of scores / how many times each score was indicated  Histogram (Bar Graph) o # of people rep # of ppl who report a score/category o Arts, science, bba  Frequency Polygon (Line Graph) o Same but tip is dot not bar  Numerically o Measures of Central Tendency (what is sample like on average) o Mean (average) X/N o Median (score that falls in the middle of the distribution) o Mode (most frequently occurring score in distribution)  Measures of Variability o How far apart the scores are spread form the mean o Range (max score – min score)  Standard Deviation (the average difference between the mean and the scores) Why is Standard Deviation so Important? Comparing Your Score to Others  Percentile o The percentage of people who score at or below a row score  Z Score o How far a given raw score is from the mean, using standard deviation  Normal Curve vs. Skewed  Curve Inferential Statistics  Used to interpret data/draw conclusions, in other words, to test hypotheses  Why do we need this if the numbers “look” different? o Sample vs. Population  How do we do this? o Test the “null hypothesis” o The assumption that there is no relationship between variables, or, no differences between groups  Goal o To “reject the null hypothesis” o Significance tests (to what extent did our result occur by chance) o High probability the result is due to chance o Low probability the result due to chance Appendix A 10/2/2012 10:06:00 AM Chapter 2-Doing Psychological Research Ex. Domestication of animals is good for humanity - Derive testable hypothesis o Specific relationships between event or variable (a measurable trait) o Ex. Pet owners are healthier than non pet owners - Prediction with operational definition - Operational definition is a way of defining your variables that specifies the operation used to measure that variable o Ex. Health – how happy are you on a 1-10 scale o Pet owner – a four year old dog in our residence (neutered males or females) o Types of Descriptive Studies  Case Very detailed description of one person - Over many years and an extended period of time o Ex. May look at one family before and after living with a dog o Measure their happiness  Observational Watch and record behavior without interfering  Tests/ Assessment Instruments Objective test (awareness) or projective tests (Less aware/automatic) Standardization – uniform test taking and scoring procedures, if everything is the same we can create norms Norms – established standards of performance Ex. BD ranges from 0-63 Ex. Mild depression; 14-19 Reliability – Provides consistent scores Test retest – Give same test twice. Do you score the same thing twice? Alternate form – Two versions of the same test, expected to score same on both tests Validity – It measures the concept we think it does Content – Asks whether the content of the test reflect the trait or behavior you’re measuring Criterion – Asks whether the test predicts behaviors related to the test you’re giving Standardization Reliability Validity Test- Alternate Norms retest Content Criterion form Survey Many tests put together. Ex. “Mass testing” in PREP  Biases o Volunteer – are you getting the results because they reflect everyone’s behavior or something about your volunteer’s behavior o Self-report data – people want to appear in a positive light, the desire to look good. Ex. Sexual survey o Response bias – how we phrase the question will affect the answer Correlation studies  What is a correlation? A measure of how strongly and in what direction two variables are related o Direction – scores increase together or decrease together  As long as they are together it is a positive correlation no matter if they are going down or up  Ex. Studying and good grades, height and weight, familiarity and liking  Negative correlation – inverse relationship, scores move in the opposite direction  One increases the other decreases  The more absences you have the lower you exam scores are  Smoking and health, flossing and tooth decay, passion and commitment  Strength: coefficient of correlation (r) o Ranges from +1 to -1 o +1 is a perfect positive relation while -1 is a perfect negative relation o A perfect relation means for every one-unit change, in one variable the second variable also changes one unit. o -.7 to -.9 and .7 to .9 are strong relationships o Height and weight (positive), flossing and tooth decay (negative) o GRE and success in grad school (weak positive correlation), Education and # of children (weak negative correlation) o Advantages/Disadvantages of Correlational studies  Breadth of knowledge  Illusory Correlations  Lack of Causation Experimental Studies Hyypotheesis (pettownnerss expeerencce lesss stress nddepeendeent varabbee Deppenddenttvariable whhatthe expermeener whhatismeeasured vares/manipulaes as a unctonn causesstohapppen) ofthe V)) Exxperimeental Coontrol conddtion Connditonn the peseence abssence oftheIV) ofthe V) via Random assignment: participants have equal chance of being assigned to either experimental or control condition. Chapter 4 – The Brain 10/2/2012 10:06:00 AM The Nervous System – responsible for the interaction between the brain and the body Central nervous system – sends and receives info from the outside back to the inside  Spinal Cord – Bridges the brain and the body o - Responsible for the reflexes below the neck  Brain – Responsible for the reflexes above the neck Peripheral Nervous System – connects the rest of the body to the central nervous system - Via bundles of axons (nerves) Somatic Nervous System – Involuntary Movement (raising hand in class) o Sensory nerves intake sensation and send them to the central nervous system o Outside, to the nerves that are connected to the spinal cord and the brain o Motor nerves go from the central nervous system back down to the muscle, organs, etc. o Dancing will occur from sending signals from your brain to your muscles Autonomic Nervous System – maintaining movement in muscles and organs o Sympathetic Nervous System – flight/flight/response  Heart rate increase  Increase in blood pressure and blood flow  Pupils dilate  Gears you up for emergencies  Helps the body cope with emergencies o Parasympathetic Nervous System – Shuts your body down  Converse energy (response to emergency)  Central released → Increase in appetite Structure of Neurons - building blocks of the nerves - neurons bound together to form nerves 1. Incoming message (neurotransmitter) – is received by dendrites 2. to the cell body 3. to Axon – long, thin fiber covered by o Myelin sheath o Made up of Glia Cells = provide nourishment, remove waste o Function is speed – signal hops to each node (made up of nodes)  Functions: Speed and protection from adjacent signals  Myelin Sheath – to protect the axon from other axons 4. Out through the axon terminal – deposits messages to the receiving neurons The more complex the neural connections the more you have learned  Axon terminal doesn‟t tough receiving neuron 5. Instead, sending/receiving neurons connected by synapse  synaptic bulb  synaptic clef (space)  receptor sutes on receiving neuron 6. Message is transferred vie Action Potential  electrical impulse caused by changes in voltage between inside and outside of its axon  synaptic vesicles open to release neurotransmitter o Exhibitory vs. Inhibitory Neurotransmitters o Like an on and off switch o Neurons either fire or not – all or none Neurotransmitters Serotonin (too little = depression) Dopamine (too little = Parkinson‟s; Too much = schizophrenia) Acetylcholine (effects muscles, memory; too little = Alzheimer‟s) Norepinephrine (too little = depression; fight/flight) Gaba (inhibitory; helps with sleep; too little = insomnia, anxiety; too much = sleep disorders) Glutamate (excitatory; implicated with long term memory) Endorphins (bodies natural morphine; pain killer) Hormones Melatonin („Dracula hormone‟ comes out at night; sleep related) Oxytocin („love hormone‟; highest at orgasm; released during eye contact, cuddling) Aderals (Fight/flight response) Sex  Testosterone o Physical maculating form o Effects sexual desire in both men and women  Estrogen o Physical feminizing  Progesterone o Present when the egg is fertilized Examining/Mapping the Brain Electrical Recordings – EEG  Patters of electrical response via electrodes on our head Lesioning – destroy parts of the brain too see its effects on behavior  Animal research Electrical Stimulation – precise stimulation of a small area 1. Cerebral Cortex; C shaped structures make up the cerebral cortex  Made up of grey matter (cell bodies) and white matter (axons) 2. Cerebrum; Largest part of the brain  Made up of hemispheres (left and right)  Corpus callosum – connects the hemispheres 3. Thalamus; Relays sensory messages to cortex. E.g. hearing to auditory cortex, seeing to visual cortex 4. Hypothalamus; regulates drives (hunger, thirst, sex), regulates body temperature, and hormones via pituitary gland 5. Pituitary gland; sends messages to other glands 6. Limbic System; made up of hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus 7. Amygdala: effects emotion 8. Hippocampus: evaluates sensory info, linked to memory a. Reticular activating system; helps you stay alert, conscious, pay attention (Damaged RAS = coma) 9. Cerebellum; smooth movement, balance, time keeper 10. Brain Stem made up of; Pons, medulla and reticular activating system 11. Pons; REM, sleeping 12. Medulla; breathing, heart rate (Damaged Medulla = dead) Cerebral cortex covering the cerebrum; - Left and right hemispheres 1. Cerebral cortex has clear C shaped structures - hills and valleys in the cortex allows greater mass in a small space (skull) 2. Left hemisphere controls right side of body; right hemisphere controls left side of body - Language, processing, understanding is more dominant on the left side - Spatial, humor is more dominant on the right side  some functions are more dominant on one side but most behaviors require both hemispheres (Don‟t worry about 3-4) 5. Frontal lobe; complex decision making a. Pre frontal cortex; responsible for self control of emotions (not fully developed until 25 years) b. Motor Cortex; movement 6. Parietal lobe (middle): pain, pressure, touch a. Somatosensory cortex (Sensory) 7. Occipital Lobe – visual cortex 8. Temporal lobe; left – auditory cortex (hearing, process language) Understanding the hemispheres via Split Brain Information that is received from the left  Being processed in the right hemisphere  If you cannot process language you cannot verbalize what you see o If something is passed to your nonverbal hemisphere The Brain and…  Self o In terms of parallel workings of the brain o The brain is simulated when we think about our self o Simultaneous activation of the brain  Culture o Different stimulations are connected based on cultures o Neuro-connections are stimulated based on experience  Sex o Gender relates to sex (masculine or feminine) o Men and women have differences in the brain o Doesn‟t lead to differences in behavior o No gender differences in IQ  Society has taught women to focus more on emotions and be more emotional Body Rhythms and Mental State 10/2/2012 10:06:00 AM Circadian Rhythms  24 hour cycle Your “biological clock”: Eye  react to light and dark  Sends message to suprachiasmatic nucleus Suprachiasmatic nucleus  SCN sends message to body and brain to elicit hormones Hormones which affect our  Brain/behavior Sleep stages (Ultradian rhythm – 90 min) Awake – Inconsistent brain waves Stage 1 – Drifting in and out of sleep, easily awakened; feeling of falling, jerky tension – lucid dreams Stage 2 – if you are woken you may not remember being asleep; memory consolidation; important for remembering new sports and activities – brain learning about muscle activity and movement Stage 3 – slowing of waves; deep breathing, muscles relax, harder to be woken – Deep sleep; sleep walking or talking would occur here. Sleep walking is a result of the paralysis hormone not being released yet. Stage 4 – Also deep sleep; REM stage – cycle through; 1,2,3,4,3,2, REM, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, REM. Brain waves are most like being awake, but body is doing something very different; Dream phase of the sleep cycle - Cycle does not go back to 1, goes back to REM • As the night progresses, spend more time in REM • Blood pressure goes up, heart rate increases • Genitals active • Paralysis → prevents us from acting out our dreams • The phase where dreams are remembered • Babies spend more time in REM than adults • If you are deprived of dreaming, body will spend more time in REM the next night Sleep Disorders  Sleep Deprivation o Increases cortisol (stress hormones); eats away at organs and brain o Decreases new cell development  Insomnia o Unable to sleep at night, wake up extremely early for your day, wake up throughout the night o Causes (mental and physical): depression, anxiety, drugs, stress, back problems o Treatment: sedatives  Problematic because they reduce stages 3 and 4 which are deep sleep phases. o Best treatment is CBT – cognitive behavioural treatment  Sleep Apnea o Wake up feeling you cannot breathe  Narcolepsy o Fall asleep in the middle of wakefulness  REM behavior disorder o Sleepwalking and talking o Genetic o Children often grow out of it o Current may have to do with alcohol/drugs or fatigue Theories of Sleeping & Dreaming  Sleep: consolidation of memory o Helps with the transfer of information from short term memory to long term  Ex. Cognitive tasks like problem solving improve with sufficient sleep Dreaming  Freud‟s Wish Fulfillment o Dreams provide insight into unconscious desires (too shameful) o For dreams to be protective we dream in symbols o Manifest vs. Latent content  Manifest = Symbol, Latent = what it means  Nudity = Loss of innocence  Teeth = means of survival, insecurities  Sea/swimming = sexual union  Problem Resolution o Dreams reflect problems and (mostly) ways to resolve them  Cognitive approach o Dreams reflect what we think about; “day residue”  Activation-synthesis o Dream content is purely random;  Activation: neurons fire randomly, where fire determines content  Synthesis: content synthesizes that random content into a story (based on your memories) Hypnosis myths and facts - (small) correlation with absorption  The more „absorbed‟ you get in your activities the more likely you can be hypnotized.  Personality traits associated with whether you are able to by hypnotized or not is called absorption - Free will  You will not to anything against your will; you choose to lose your inhibitions  Those who do not want to be hypnotized will not be - Hypnosis is not extraordinary  You can do the same behaviors whether you‟re in the hypnotic state or not - Hypnosis does not increase memory  Increases memory error - Hypnosis suggests pain relief  mind over matter Theories of Hypnosis - Dissociation  Consciousness can be separated  Hypnotized part and hidden observer  Later research: frontal love (decision making) is weakened enough so that you release inhibitions - Socio-cognitive  Hypnosis is role-playing; participant plays a role expected of them Drugs - Classification (see table)  Stimulants; speed you up o From cafine to cocaine o Low amounts; euphoria, Medium amounts; anxiety, High amounts; die  Depressants; slow you down o Alcohol o Low amounts; calm, Medium; insensitive to pain, High; die  Opiates; pain reliever o Morphine  Psychedelics; hallucinogens o LSD Your body on drugs - Increases in neurotransmitters;  get more frequently produced  or, reuptake process is slowed o Crashing  Process of reuptake of enzymes eating too much of neurotransmitter, therefore you have a deficit  Makes body crave o Tolerance  Needing more to get the same effect  Ex. Alcohol tolerance o Withdrawal  Taking away Sexual Arousal
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