Class Notes (834,037)
Canada (508,290)
Psychology (2,787)
PS101 (736)
Lecture

Psychology 101

79 Pages
449 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Mindi Foster
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology: Chapter 1 11/29/2012 12:18:00 PM What is Psychology?  How our physical, mental states and external environment affects our thoughts, feelings and behaviours Psychology vs. Pseudoscience  Psychology o Empirical (observation, experimentation, measurement)  Example: shows 40-60 year olds are happier  Pseudoscience o Promises easy fixes to life’s problems and challenges  Example: Resolving your happiness as an adult by “reliving” the supposed trauma of your birth, become more creative on the job by “reprogramming” your brain o Unsupported Popular Opinion  Example: midlife crisis occurs o Psychobabble  Scientific sounding language  Not scientific based  “empty nest syndrome”  children leave their parents- parents don’t know what to do How to do Psychology with Critical Thinking  Make judgments based on the basis of well supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion  Ask questions and examine evidence o Look for the source of information  Define your Terms o What do you consider crisis? Complete melt down?  Analyze Assumptions / Biases o Think about assumptions being made in research  Don’t Oversimplify o Interested in hundreds of pieces of data  Avoid Emotional Reasoning o Avoid intense emotional reasoning, focus on facts  Tolerate Uncertainty o There is no right or wrong answer o Evidence for and against  Consider Alternative Interpretations o Is convertible driving dad midlife crisis or disposable income? History of Psychology  Pre Modern o John Locke argued that the mind works by associating ideas arising from experience, o Theory of phrenology  Different brain areas = own personality traits  Traits could be read from bumps on the skull  Example: Thieves for example would have large bumps above the ears  Failed - pseudoscience (no evidence)  Modern o Structuralism  Conscious experience (sensations, images, feelings) - basic elements  Introspection (methodology)  Figure out peoples conscious decisions  Too subjective, everyone is different - varied experiences o Functionalism  Function or purpose of behaviour - environment  Conscious is not statistic but flows and changes  No set methodology/theory o Psychoanalysis  Mind cures - efforts correct ideas that brought negative feelings  Emotional trauma when child - threaten conscious  Criticism  Not falsifiable - cant disprove it Today’s Psychology Type Topics Focus on Depression Biological -Nervous system -Too little serotonin - -Biology affects -Hormones leads to depression behaviour -Genes Learning -Rewards/Punishments -Rewarding a crying -Causes behaviour baby - attention from Behaviorist: learn being sad through environment Socio cognitive: learn -Model behaviour -Depressed parents through observation Cognitive: how higher -Memory, language, -Depression attributable level thinking affects decision making style (negative events behaviour are your fault) - depression -Depressive thought patterns Sociocultural (Social -Culture, gender, -How discrimination Psych) religion, team, family affects depression -How groups or the environment affect behaviour Psychodynamic -Trauma or desires -Child abuse - -Unconscious motives depression affect behaviour -Hating of mother - depression What Psychologists Do  Professional Activities o Teaching + research o Providing health or mental health services  Research o Seeking knowledge for own sake work in basic psychology, doing “pure” research o Experimental Psychologists  Laboratory studies - learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology and cognition o Educational Psychologists  Learning + ways to improve educational system o Developmental Psychologists  Study how people change and grow over time (physically, mentally, socially) o Industrial/Organizational Psychologists  Behaviour in the workplace  Group decision making, employee moral, work motivation, productivity, job stress, personnel selection, marketing strategies, equipment design o Psychometric Psychologists  Design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and personalities  Practice o Improve ---> physical + mental health o Counseling psychologist  Generally help people deal with problems of every day life  Anxiety, family conflicts, low job motivation o School psychologists  Work with parents, teachers and students to enhance students performance and resolve emotional difficulties o Clinical Psychologist  PhD in psychology  Diagnose, treat, and study mental or emotional problems  Trained to do psychotherapy o Psychotherapist  Anyone who does any kind of psychotherapy o Psychoanalyst  Person who practices one particular form of therapy o Psychiatrist  Received their MD: medical doctor and then specialize in psychiatry  Learn who to diagnose and treat mental disorders  Industry Psychology in the Community  Consult with companies to improve worker satisfaction in productivity  Establish programs to improve o Worker satisfaction and productivity o Race relations and reduce ethnic tensions  Advice commissions on how pollution and noise affect mental health  Rehabilitation training for people who are physically and mentally disabled  Assist the police in emergencies involving hostages or disturbed persons  Educate judges and juries about eyewitness testimony  Conduct public opinioned surveys  Run suicide prevention hotlines  Advice zoos on the care and training of animals  Help coaches improve the athletic performance of their teams Doing Psychological Research 11/29/2012 12:18:00 PM Example:  Hunch: domestication of animals is good for humanity  Derive testable hypothesis o Specify relationships between events or variable (measurable trait or behaviour) o Example: pet owners are healthier than non pet owners (2 variables)  Predictions with operational definitions (extremely specific) o A way of defining your variables that specifies the action/operation used to measure that variable o Health  How happy are you on a 1 to 10 scale o Pet owner  A four year old dog in our residence  Neutered males and females  How it affects our happiness Establishing the Facts  Representative sample o Represents the larger population  Descriptive methods o Describe and predict behaviour - don’t choose one explanation over the other Types of Descriptive Studies  Case Studies o Detailed description of one person - observation or formal psychological testing o Information - childhood, dreams, fantasies, experiences and relationships o Information is often missing or hard to interpret o Example  Look at one family or one person before or after living with a dog and measure their happiness  Observational o Researcher - observes, measures, and records behaviour o Naturalistic observation  Act in normal social environments  At home, playgrounds or streets, in school rooms, in offices o Laboratory observation  Determine the number of people who will be observed  Presence of researchers and special equipment  behave differently than they would in their usual surroundings o Watch and record behaviour without interfering o Example  Questionnaires  Tests o Assessment instruments  Procedures for measuring and evaluating personality traits, emotions, aptitudes, interests, abilities and values o Objective  Measures beliefs, feelings or behaviours of which an individual is aware  Asking people about things they are aware of  “how happy/sad are you” o Projective  Unconscious feelings or motives  Asses things that people are less aware of (less automatic) When creating a test make sure… Standardization  Uniform test taking and scoring procedures o Give the same test and instructions to each participant o Scoring is done by referring to norms or established standards of performance o Provides us with established standards of performance  Example: BDI: 0-63, after testing thousands of people they concluded a norm score…not depressed (14-19) Reliability  Must produce the same results from one time and place to the next  Test – retest o Giving the test twice to the same group of people and comparing the two sets of scores statistically o If the test is reliable then the scores will be similar o Drawback: people tend to do better the second time they take a test, after they have become familiar with it o Make the test in different forms  Alternate Form o 2 versions of the same test o Expect the same result  Provide constant scores o Testing IQ Validity  Measures the concept we think it does  Content validity o Does the content reflect the trait or behaviour you’re measuring  Criterion validity o Does the test predict behaviours related to the trait or behaviour you’re measuring Survey  Questionnaires and interviews - ask directly about experiences  Sampling problems are often an issue o Many tests put together  Mass testing  Example: PREP o Biases  Volunteer  Are you getting the results  They reflect everyone’s behaviour, or something about the volunteer’s behaviour  Self report data  People want to appear in a positive light  Example: sexual surveys  Response Bias  How we phrase the question will affect the answer Correlational Studies  What is a correlation? o A measure of how strongly and in what direction two variables are related o Direction  Positive correlation  Scores are increasing together  Scores are decreasing together  Example: studying, the more hours you study the higher you’re grades are, the less you study, the lower marks you’re grades are  Example: familiarity: the more failure you are, the more you will like it  Negative correlation  Inverse relationship scores move in the opposite direction  Example: the more you miss class, the lower you’re grades are  The more you smoke, the less healthy you are  The less you floss, the higher you’re tooth decay  The more passionate we are, the less committed we are: the less passionate we are, the more committed we are (relationships)  Strength o Coefficient of correlation (r) o Ranges from -1 to +1 o -1: perfect negative correlation o +1: perfect positive correlation Advantages/Disadvantages of Correlational Studies  Breadth of knowledge (advantage) o Lots of information from running one survey o Complex relationships  Illusory Correlations (disadvantage) o Apparent association o Not empirically supported o Example: superstitions  Lack of Causation o R (the number of appliances, is positively related to birth control use) o There may be a correlation but they are not directly related o Appliances - education - birth control use o Because of a 3 rdvariable, may explain the R causation can not be implied Experimental Studies: When we test causation  An experiment allows the researcher to control and manipulate the situation being studied 1. Manipulate something (independent variable) 2. Try to control for other variables (dependent variable)  Control group and random assignment If equal - manipulated caused the outcome  Hypothesis (pet owners experience less stress)  Independent Variable o what the experimenter varies/manipulates/causes to happen o Pet owner - giving a pet  Dependent Variable o What is measured as a function (outcome) of the IV (stress)  Experimental Condition (independent variable) o The presence of the IV o Giving the pet  Control condition (independent variable) o Absence of the IV o Don’t give a pet - pet rock o A good control condition is similar to the experience condition in every aspect OTHER than IV Random Assignment  Participants have equal change of being assigned to either experimental or control condition  Why does it increase control? o Creates an equal playing field o Then all the other variables that could affect out DV get randomized across groups or conditions o The conditions equal with the exception of our IV Non Random Assignment  Does Studying lead to good grades?  Studying: independent variable  Grades: dependent variable  Studying did not necessarily cause grade difference o We did not control for IQ Advantage / Disadvantages of Experiments  Cause/ Effect  Experimenter effects (unintended changes in participant behaviour due to experimenter expectations) o Example: told teachers certain students were late bloomers; despite all having the same level of IQ  Disadvantage: solution - double blind study  External validity o Disadvantage: doesn’t apply to the real world - take experiment into field Method Advantages Disadvantages Case Study -good source of -vital information may hypothesis be missing, making the -provides in depth case hard to interpret information on -the person’s memories individuals may be selective or -unusual cases can shed inaccurate light on situations or -the individual may not problems that are be representative or unethical or impractical typical to study in other ways Naturalistic Observation -allows description of -allows researcher little behaviour as it occurs in or no control of the the natural environment situation -often useful in the first-observations may be stage of a research biased program -does not allow firm conclusions about cause and effect Laboratory Observation -allows more control -allows researcher only than naturalistic limited control of the observation situation -allows use of -observations may be sophisticated equipment biased -does not allow firm conclusions about cause and effect -behaviour may differ from behaviour in the natural environment Test -yields information on -difficult to construct personality traits, tests that are reliable emotional states, and valid aptitudes, and abilities Survey -provides a large -if sample is amount of information nonrepresentative or on large numbers of biased, it may be people impossible to generalize from the results -responses may be inaccurate Correlational Study -shows whether two or -usually does not permit more variables are identification of cause related and effect -allows general predictions Experiment -allows researcher to -situation is artificial, control the situation and results may not -permits researcher to generalize well to the identify cause and effect real world and to distinguish -sometimes difficult to placebo effects from avoid experimenter treatment effects effects Methods of Sampling  Researchers must worry about how one language translates into another  What seems like a cultural difference may really be a difference in education, crowding or some other non cultural factor Stereotyping  Describe average differences across societies, they may be tempted to oversimplify their findings Reification  To reify - regard an intangible process, such as a feeling, as if it were a literal object  “I have a lot of anger buried in me” o Treating anger as if it were a thing that sits inside them like a kidney  Cluster of mental and physical reactions that come and go Evaluating Data with Statistics  1. Describe them  2. Assess how reliable and meaningful they are  3. Figure out how to explain them o Visually view the frequency distribution  Distribution of scores / how many times each score was indicated o Histogram (Bar Graph)  Y axis: number of people  X axis: what facility they are in  Each bar represents the number of people who report a score/category o Frequency Polygon (Line Graph)  Same as histogram but tip is a dot instead of a bar o Numerically  Measures of Central Tendency  What is the sample like on average  Mean (average)  Median (score that falls in the middle of the distribution)  Mode (most frequently occurring score in distribution)  Measures of Variability o How far apart the scores are spread form the mean o Range: max score – min score o Standard Deviation (the average difference between the mean and the scores) Why is Standard Deviation so Important?  Not everyone scores the average  Some score above average or below average  Despite, two samples with the same mean, performance is clearly different Comparing Your Score to Others  Percentile o The percentage of people who score at or below a row score o Raw: 45/60 - 90 percentile  90% of those who took the test score at or less than 45/60  Z Score o How far a given raw score is from the mean, using standard deviation o Raw score: 45/60 - z = 2  You scored 2 standard deviation’s above the mean  Normal Curve vs. Skewed  Curve a) Negatively skewed b) Positively skewed Inferential Statistics  Used to interpret data/draw conclusions - test hypothesis o Is data real or error?  Why do we need this if the numbers “look” different? o Sample (subset) vs. Population (complete set) o There will be error comparing the sample to the population  How do we do this? o Test the “null hypothesis” o The assumption that there is no relationship between variables, or, no differences between groups o Example: r=0 between number of hours studying and grade o Example: mean = 85% (a’s) and 64% (c’s)  Null hypothesis says they are equal  Goal o To “reject the null hypothesis” o Significance tests (to what extent did our result occur by chance) Rejecting the null hypothesis  By testing “significance” of our data  High probability the result is due to change o P> .05 o More than 5 times in 100 our result is due to chance o Random error, mistake o Too big error - non significant data  Low probability the result is due to change o P
More Less

Related notes for PS101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit