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Chapter 1–The Evolution of Psychology.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Mindi Foster

Chapter 1–The Evolution of Psychology 9/14/2011 11:39:00 AM Structuralism  school of thought first associated with a methodology  Wundt’s influence  what is happening? o Contribution of attaching psychology to a methodology; made it a creditable discipline with a methodology o Historical milestones were the science of chemistry industrial revolution, inventions such as steamships and elevators  “analysis of consciousness into its basic elements” o Made a science about breaking down the conscious mind into its basic elements; thoughts, feelings (emotional and phsycial).  Methodology: Introspection “systematic self-observation of own conscious experience” o Individuals look at own sensations, reactions o Intense training on introspection; trained people to pay close attention to every minute detail/sensation  Criticism o Not an objective form of science (methodology); derive conflicting reports of the same stimulus o Cannot document different experiences o Only descriptive Functionalism
  James’ influence  Why it is happening; function of behavior o To Wundt, his methodology meant it is static; to James there is a stream of consciousness that never ends and there is not the breakdown that Wundt focused on.  “What is the function of behaviour”  Asking why  Methodology: Real world 
 o Looking for the function of a behavior then look at how the behavior is used in real time Behaviourism  Watson’s influence: “The study of observable behaviour (any observable response)” o People at the time were interested in mechanics, science over religion, believed that were are like machines o creation vs. evolution debate during this time (observable vs unobservable) o knowledge had to be verified; had to prove the existence and the truth of something  “...and its relation to observable events” o what observable event lead to an observable behavior (event – cause, behavior – effect) o S – R effect: stimulus response effect  Skinner’s influence  redefined internal events, such as emotions, as an s-r result o Ex. Love is a stimulus response; love is learned and is an observable event o Behavior only occurs if it is positively rewarded  Criticism o If that is the only reason the behavior occurs then do we have any form of free will? o Ex. The repeat/continuation of academics as a result of the rewards of good grades and the emotional satisfaction derived from such experiences. o What about human choice/free will? o Focus on the animal model  applies it to humans; assumes that the systems in animals are similar to those of humans  Lab rats/pigeon testing Chapter 1–The Evolution of Psychology 9/14/2011 11:39:00 AM Psychoanalytic theory  permissive era in US and still Victorian repressed society in Europe; from this Freud’s theories were born; bring this to the unobservable behavior (ex. Oedipus complex)  “the effects of unconscious thoughts, 
 memories, desires on current behaviour” o ID/ego/superego o Penis envy o Oedipus complex  Methodology: slips, dreams etc. o To understand an individuals behavior o Slips of the tongue expose the true thoughts/behavior/meanings o Regan (1988) “facts are stubborn things  facts are stupid things” o Our motivations are so powerful we must hide them  Criticism 
 o Freud was a cocaine addict o His theories are not falsifiable/un-disprovable  if you cannot disprove it, it always remains right, th
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