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PS101 (736)


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Mindi Foster

1 1Chapter 2 + Appendix B Empirical research via Experimental designs Hyppothessss (pettownnerss exxperiencce less stress nddepeendeent varabble Deepeendenntvaarabble (whaathe experimenter (what s measured ariesmaanipuates asa unncion /causes o happenn) offhe IV) Exxperimeentall Conndiion Conntrolconndiion (absence ofthe V)) the pessence oftheIV) 2 via Random assignment: participants have equal chance of being assigned to either experimental or control condition. How does random assignment reduce • extraneous variables (variables other than the IV that may influence the DV) • confounding (when extraneous variables and IV cannot be teased apart)? Non Random assignment: Does Studying lead to good grades? 3 Random Assignment Experimental Control IV Studying NoStudying P1:highiq P11:lowiq P2:highiq P12:lowiq Results:A’s F’s 4 Experimental Control IV Studying NoStudying P1:lowiq P11:highiq P2:highiq P12:lowiq Results:A’s F’s 5 Types of Experiments • Within subjects design • Factorial Design oInteraction (when the effect of one variable depends on the effect of the other) 6 Multivariate Designs (repeated measures) Advantages/Disadvantages of Experiments • cause/effect • decreased external validity • inappropriate for certain variables Empirical research via Descriptive/Correlational designs Types • Naturalistic observation (observing behaviour without intervening) 7 • Case study (in-depth investigation of an individual subject) • Surveys (gathering information about specific aspects of people’s behavior) 8 Advantages/Disadvantages • lack of causality, due to confounding • self-report data Analyzing Data with Statistics Visually • Histogram (bar graph) • Frequency polygon (line graph) 9 80 70
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