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Chapter 14 – Psychological Disorder.docx

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Mindi Foster

Chapter 14 – Psychological Disorder How to define “Abnormality”  Medical Model (Abnormality as a disease) o Mental illness being treated as a disease rather then a crime  Deviance o If it is deviant from the norm, it is “abnormal” o Examples  Drapetomania  When a slave exhibited the urge to escape from slavery  Homosexuality  Was considered deviant until 1973  Maladaptive Behaviour o Classify behaviours as maladaptive for individual or society as abnormal o Smoking is maladaptive for the individual and the society, should we be classifying you as abnormal?  Personal Distress o If we feel that we need help DSM ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual)  Axis 1 – primary problems o Symptoms: mood, self esteem  Axis 2 – personality disorder o Eating disorder  Axis 3 – Medical conditions o Hypertension, diabetes  Axis 4 – External Stressor o No social network  Axis 5 – Functioning o Going from good to hurting oneself Criticisms  Rise in disorders since its first publication o Are we over diagnosing? o Powers of labels Anxiety Disorders  Anxiety that has no external causes Is not tied to a specific event for a specific threat o Generalized Anxiety Disorder  worry, putting the body into fight and flight mood by being constantly worrying, physical symptoms (Muscle tension, heart palpitations, sweating), worry that lasts up to six months o Obsessive-Complusive disorder  repetitive ritualized behaviour, checkers, symmetry, cleanliness, hoarders  External Causes  Triggered by some past event, an object/situation o Post traumatic stress  TRAUMA, vulnerability increases with intensity of event “aftermath”  requires a traumatic event to trigger it  Symptoms: nightmares, flashbacks, isolation from others, depression, anxiety, anger, increased arousal o Phobias  irrational fear of object, situation  Fear and physical symptoms o Panic disorder and Agoraphobia  Panic Attacks  when you have reoccurring panic attacks you have stress and interpret as it “doom” causing panic, “oh my god I am going to die”.  People will begin to isolate themselves from events that they believe will bring about a panic attack. This then could turn into agoraphobia  There are two types, non clinical or clinical  Clinical recurrent and not linked to external events  Nonclinical  linked to events  Often, one will lead to another Causes of Anxiety Disorders  Biology  an oversensitivity to physical symptoms, neurotransmitters (serotonin and GABA) o Concordance rate (percentage of twins or relatives who exhibit the same disorder)  If two twins have a particular disease then we are more likely to say that it is biology  The rate is 10 -35% o Criticism of twin studies  Even if twins share the disease, they could have also experienced similar environments  Share socioeconomic status  families that are well of are the ones who are able to adopt  Ours look impact how we get treated  good looking people and skinny people get paid and trusted more. If you have 2 identical people, it is likely that they are going to experience the same environment  Learning o Associations between non-fear and fear. When these are combined, the not- fearful thing takes on fear o We can reward fear and that maintains it, encourage fear o We can observe fear  Cognitive o Misinterpretation of the physical sensations that we are experiencing o Selectively attend to threat  look for the problems, panicing about the panic  Stress-vulnerability model o Stress plus all of the above Somatoform Disorders (physical ai
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