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Chapter 3–Biological Bases of Behavior.doc

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Mindi Foster

Chapter 3–Biological Bases of Behavior ← ← Structure of Neurons • The cells that receive, integrate and transmit information ← ← ← 1. Incoming message first received by dendrites ← 2. Into the Soma (the cell body), containing the cell nucleus. ← 3. To Axon (long thin fiber) toward another neuron ← 4. Axon covered by myelin sheath = insulation for protection (from adjacent signals/messages) • Made up of glia cells (carry nourishment to and waste away from the neuron cells) • Its functions are:  If it is damaged, there could be a loss of sensation, a loss of coordination. It is also a reason that a baby is so uncoordinated because the myelin sheath is not fully developed in the baby.  Speed ← 5. Message ends at synapse • terminal button • synaptic cleft • receptor site of the next neuron • Connection to the other neuron 2 ← ← 3 ← Communication between Neurons 4 • When no information is being communicated we call it the “Resting Potential”. • When they are communicating, it comes out of rest. If the message is sent, the neutrons create “Action Potential”. • Permeability is changed so that positive ions flow in  Refractory period = down time required before another firing  All or none = neurons fire or not. Strength is communicated via speed of firing. ← 6. The action potential arrives at the terminal button. Therefore, synaptic vesicles release info (neurotransmitters) • Only the right shaped message (neurotransmitter) can be received (lock and key) ← 7. Buttonal Binding of N.T to receptor s“Post synaptic potential” May do so in 2 ways • Excitatory way = where the probability the neuron will fire is increased • Inhibitory = the probability the neuron will fire is decreased The more experiences you have as a child, the more connections you have among neurons, the quicker you are able to process information ← ← What are they communicating? Neurotransmitters ← 5 Acetlycholine • Controls voluntary muscle action • Nicotine mimics acetylcholine • Curare opposes acetylcholine, mimics paralysis ← Dopamine • Also controls voluntary movement • Controls the pleasure emotions – too much can cause/lead to an addiction and too little could have something to do with Parkinson’s Norepinephrine • Depression ← ← Seratonin • Depression  Mood  Appetites too little = depression  Sleep ← ← GABA • Inhibitory, sleep 6 • Too little, anexiety ← ← ← Endorphins = morphine • Natural pain killer • Blocks pain signals ← ← The Nervous System • Spinal cord – bridges brain and body, reflexes below the neck, tells the muscles how to move • Hindbrain – reflexes above the neck • Somatic System o Afferent Nerves  sensory information goes into the brain via those nerves o Efferent Nerves  information leaving the brain (outgoing) to muscles ← Examining the Brain • Electrical Recordings (EEGs) o Electrodes on scalp, watch brainwaves 7 • Lesioning o By lesioning/destroying a piece of brain, we can see resultant behavior and therefore assume that the part of the brain destroyed • Electrical Stimulation • Brain Imaging o CT,PET, MRI, FMRI ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← 8 Chapter 3–Biological Bases of Behavior ← ← The Brain • Cerebral Cortex is the convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum (made up of left/right hemispone of the newest parts of the brain evolutionarily speaking. This has a lot to do with why we evolved the way we did and how we evolved to do the things we do. • (2) These c-shaped strucThese allow us to compact a vast • (3) Hills and valleys amount of nerves into our brain ← ← ← ← ← • (4) Left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and vice versa 9 • (5) The frontal lobe – controls complex thinking, decision making • (6) Motor cortex – voluntary movement • (7) Parietal Lobe – pain, pressure, touch • (8) Somatosensory Cortex – related to Parietal Lobe • (9) Occipital Lobe – Visual cortex • (10) Temporal Lobe – Audition ← ← Left lateral view 10 Chapter 3–Biological Bases of Behavior ← _– ← • Corpus Callosum allows hemisphere to communicate • (2) allows us to attend to info, alters, conscious (damage = coma) o Mebulla damage = death • Cerebellum, time keeper, balance o Damage = lack of coordination/balance • Thalamus – sensory traffic cop, directs sensory information to the right place in the brain 11 • A, B, C the limbic system = are in control of emotions o B, amygdala – controls the system’s reactions to emotions, should I be upset or not? o C, hypothalamus – the pleasure center, releases dopamine in response to pleasure stimuli or emotionally pleasing stimuli, nucleus accumbens releases dopamine • Parallel Processing System – capable of doing a lot of things at once; a lot of neural connections occur simultaneously o Ex. The Mozart Effect if you play classical music to babies, their intelligence is increased. This was a flawed experiment;
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