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PS101 Chpt. 2.docx

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Don Morgenson

Chpt2TheResearchEnterpriseinPsychologyThe Scientific Approach to BehaviourPsychologistsScientists share 3 sets of interrelated goals1requires that an investigator figure out a way to MeasurementDescriptionmeasure the phenomenon under study develop measuring techniques that make it possible to describe behaviour precisely ex If youre interested in the affect of different situations on emotion you would have to find some way of measuring emotions2 scientists believe that they understand events when UnderstandingPrediction they can explain the reasons for the occurrence of the events to evaluate their understanding scientists make and test predictions called hypotheses Hypothesis a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables Variables are any measurable conditions events characteristics or behaviours that are controlled or observed in studyApplicationControl 3 scientists hope the information they gather will be of some practical value in helping solve everyday problemsex Clinical psychologist might use what we know about typical everyday emotions to help individuals suffering from emotional disordersTheory is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations psychologists use theories not just isolated facts to get a better understanding of behaviour By integrating apparently unrelated facts and principles into a coherent whole theories permit psychologists to make a leap from the description of behaviour to actually understand behaviourScientific theory must be testable and theory construction if gradual and always subject to revision ie findings dont support hypothesis must refine theorySteps in Scientific Investigation1 Formulate a Testable HypothesisScientific hypotheses must be formulated precisely and variables must be clearly definedOperational Definition describes the actions of operations that will be used to measure or control a variable ex Dutton and Aron measured sexual attraction in 2 ways evaluated amount of sexual
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