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Psych Chp 15.docx

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Lawrence Murphy

Psychology Disorders - Chapter 15 R. D. Laing - didn’t believe in the idea of mental health/disorders - his mother was distant, and his parents had a weird relationship o thought it maybe came down to dysfunctional families (parents) - nobody is normal - Laing believes that psychiatry today focuses on making everybody the same o take a pill and it will fix everyone to make everyone the same Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: disturbance in mood ranging from extreme depression to extreme mania Major Depression: - mood disorder involving disturbance in emotion, behavior, cognition and body function Bipolar Disorder: - mood disorder in which episodes of both depression and mania (excessive euphoria) occur Vulnerability-Stress Model - approaches that emphasize how individual vulnerabilities interact with external stresses or circumstances to produce mental disorder - vulnerability with emotional distress - not just related to depression Origins of Depression 1. Genetic Factors o Adoptive studies – seen that even when adopted into families with depression, if there direct family has depression the child has potential of being depressed o 5-HTT gene o Levels of serotonin and cortisol 2. Life experiences and circumstances o Experience of violence/domestic violence 3. Losses of important relationships o Reactive depression: depression in reaction to depression – if it says on for a while than it could be considered depression later 4. Cognitive habits o Permanent and uncontrollable attributions, rumination (going over stuff over and over again, wishing you did something different – I should have done this … when I was in elementary school….) Personality Disorder - Most difficult to work with - Hardest to do anything about - A pattern in personality that involved unchanging maladaptive traits that cause great distress or an inability to get along with others - Can cause distress - May have a hard time getting along with others - NOT caused by medical conditions, stress, or situations that involve temporary changes in behavior - NOT caused by sudden changes - Paranoid Personality Disorder o Characterized by unreasonable, excessive suspiciousness and mistrust, and irrational feelings of being persecuted by others - Narcissistic Personality Disorder o Characterized by an exaggerated sense of self-importance and self-absorption o Hard to help them because they don’t understand that they have a disorder - Borderline personality disorder o Characterized by intense but unstable relationships, fear of abandonment by others, unrealistic self-image and emotional volatility Criminals and Psychopaths - Psychopathy o Happy to deceive and manipulate o Characterized by lack of remorse, empathy, anxiety and other social emotions, the use of deceit and manipulation, and impulsive thrill seeking o E.g. being okay with lying to all people and telling them they are representing them going to help them and once elected don’t care what the people think after they have the power - Antisocial personality disorder (APD) o Characterized by a lifelong pattern of irresponsible antisocial behavior such as law- breaking, violence and other impulsive, reckless acts o Mainly in men o Mainly in people in jail APD and Psychopathy factors - A number of factors may be involved: o Abnormalities in the central nervous system o Impaired frontal lobe functioning o Genetic influences (Hard to distinguish) Emotions and APD - Physiological responses to threat of punishment, empathy and emotions such as anxiety or fear that can be classically conditioned are different between APD and non-APD groups - ADP people are not as concerned, not as anxious Drug Abuse and Addiction - Substance abuse o A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress
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