Michael Matthews February 14, 2012
• Motivation and emotion:
o All of the processes that initiate, direct, and sustain behaviour.
o Motives are needs or desires that direct or energise our behaviour
o Goal directed
o When motives are internal they push us to act- call these drives
o When motives are external (or outside of us) we call them incentives- they pull or entice
us to act.
• How do we direct our behaviour?
o Self-regulation: organizes and directs your own being
o Homeostasis: stable internal equilibrium, temperature control, reflexive/ involuntary,
supplement/ voluntary behaviours
o How does homeostasis work?
Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic)
o These systems control the compensatory mechanisms
Hypothalamus (governs or controls the system)
• The primary drives: thirst and hunger
o Primary drive stems from unlearned motives to satisfy biological needs.
o Satisfied through- reflexive compensatory mechanisms, couples with directed behaviour
o Extracellular thirst: occurs when body tissues lose fluids, such as when one perspires
o Intracellular thirst: occurs when body cells lose water, such as when one eats salty foods.
o How do we solve the thirst problem?
1-Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), 2-Volume receptors, 3-Osmoreceptors, 4-
behaviour (getting a drink).
• Hunger drives:
o Internal cues: motivate hunger by stimulating the hypothalamus in the brain, receptors