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Lecture 3

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Eileen Wood

Michael Matthews January 10, 2012 Psychology 3  Difference between classical and operant conditioning.  Classical- behavioural changes due to association of two stimuli (CS-UCS) presented prior to the response of CR  Operant- Behaviour changes as a result of consequences that follow it.  We learn through consequences  Thorndike’s Law of Effect- response by satisfying consequences becomes more likely to occur.  Response followed by an unsatisfying consequence becomes less likely to occur.  Other names for operant are Skinnerian and instrumental.  Assumes that behaviours are voluntary, under our control.  We have to emit behaviour, “operate” on the environment, and then associate this behaviour with a positive or negative outcome.  “Reinforces” increase the likelihood of behaviour.  “Punishers” suppress behaviour.  Primary reinforcers- stimuli that are reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs (e.g. food, drink).  Secondary Reinforcers- acquire reinforcing properties through association with primary reinforcers (e.g. money and praise)  Money can be both, primary if you are a coin collector.  Reinforcement  Punishment  Positive  Increase behaviour  Decrease behaviour  Add to environment  Add to environment  Candy, smile, A+  Slap, shout  Negative  Increase behaviour  Decrease behaviour  Remove from  Remove from environment environment  Buzzer, pain  Time out, no TV  Developmental implications:  Individual has to be able to naturally produce a behaviour  OR  Sha
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