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Lecture

Lecture 1 and 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS102
Professor
Eileen Wood
Semester
Winter

Description
Psychology January 3, 5, 2012 What is learning? Process by which experience produces relatively enduring change in behavior or capabilities (knowledge) - Is one of the mot fundamental concepts in psychology - It shapes personal habits such as: nail biting, personality traits such as fear of storms and personal preferences (types of clothes or taste of tacos) How do we learn? 1) Behaviorism 2) Ethology Behaviourism - Focused on how organisms learn - Examined process by which experience influences behavior - Discovered laws of learning that apply to virtually all organisms - Treated organisms as tabula rasa (States that individuals are born with mental content and that that content or knowledge comes from experience and perception) - Explained learning solely in terms of directly observable events 2 Types of Conditioning 1) Respondent (AKA classical or pavlovian) = Natural Responses, some things we encounter in the world naturally elicit (draw out) a response in us. 2) Operant (AKA Skinnerian or instrumental) = Taught Responding, when we pair things that don’t have a value Language of Respondent Conditioning 1) UCS (Unconditioned Stimulus) = Stimulus that elicits a reflective or innate unconditioned response (UCR) without prior learning. 2) UCR (Unconditioned Response, Natural Response) = Reflexive or innate response elicited by the UCS without prior learning. 3) CS (Conditioned Stimulus) = Stimulus that through association with the UCS come to elicit a conditioned response similar to the original UCR. 4) CR (Conditioned Response) = UCR because have been said to be automatic or involuntary responses. Getting a Response - Natural responses are unconditioned responses evoked in responses to an unconditional stimulus Infant Natural Response Example UCS USR= SMILE, Lip licking Sugar Adult Natural Pairing UCS USR= Pucker, brow together Lemon January 5, 2012 Phobias: Are irrational fears of specific objects or situations (shark phobia) Classical Conditioning: Is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. - Classical conditioning plays a key role in shaping emotional responses such as fear. - Phobias can be one of the responses. Conditioning and Physiological Responses - Research has revealed that the functioning
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