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Lecture 1 and 2

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Eileen Wood

Psychology January 3, 5, 2012 What is learning? Process by which experience produces relatively enduring change in behavior or capabilities (knowledge) - Is one of the mot fundamental concepts in psychology - It shapes personal habits such as: nail biting, personality traits such as fear of storms and personal preferences (types of clothes or taste of tacos) How do we learn? 1) Behaviorism 2) Ethology Behaviourism - Focused on how organisms learn - Examined process by which experience influences behavior - Discovered laws of learning that apply to virtually all organisms - Treated organisms as tabula rasa (States that individuals are born with mental content and that that content or knowledge comes from experience and perception) - Explained learning solely in terms of directly observable events 2 Types of Conditioning 1) Respondent (AKA classical or pavlovian) = Natural Responses, some things we encounter in the world naturally elicit (draw out) a response in us. 2) Operant (AKA Skinnerian or instrumental) = Taught Responding, when we pair things that don’t have a value Language of Respondent Conditioning 1) UCS (Unconditioned Stimulus) = Stimulus that elicits a reflective or innate unconditioned response (UCR) without prior learning. 2) UCR (Unconditioned Response, Natural Response) = Reflexive or innate response elicited by the UCS without prior learning. 3) CS (Conditioned Stimulus) = Stimulus that through association with the UCS come to elicit a conditioned response similar to the original UCR. 4) CR (Conditioned Response) = UCR because have been said to be automatic or involuntary responses. Getting a Response - Natural responses are unconditioned responses evoked in responses to an unconditional stimulus Infant Natural Response Example UCS USR= SMILE, Lip licking Sugar Adult Natural Pairing UCS USR= Pucker, brow together Lemon January 5, 2012 Phobias: Are irrational fears of specific objects or situations (shark phobia) Classical Conditioning: Is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. - Classical conditioning plays a key role in shaping emotional responses such as fear. - Phobias can be one of the responses. Conditioning and Physiological Responses - Research has revealed that the functioning
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