Problem Solving & Reasoning
- Everyday experience
Initial State set of operations Goal state
Set of Operations
1. Interpret (frame) and understand the problem (what problem are you facing?)
2. Generate hypotheses or possible solutions
3. Test the solutions, hypotheses, seeking to disconfirm one or more of them (test
them out, sometimes more than 1)
4. Evaluate results and , if necessary, revise steps 1,2, or 3
*This is the pattern regardless of age
Autotomized is a good thing (driving a car)
So How do you Solve the Problem?
- What are the operations?
- How do you select these?
- Depends on your preferences and experience/ knowledge and the situations
Skills in Problem Solving Develop over Time & Experience (* not tested)
- Step-by-step scripts for selecting information
- Experts = great many schemas for problem solving
- How would a locksmith approach the problem?
- A carpenter? A police officer?
Experience develops schemas and they help to solve specialized classes of problem
So How Do you Solve the Problem?
Algorithm (will always get you the right answer)
- Formulas or procedures (step-by-step) that automatically generate correct solutions
- E.g. mathematical and chemical formulas, sequenced routines
- Cost: many time consuming
Heuristic: rule of thumb, strategies
- General problem- solving strategies that we apply to certain classes of situations
- Mental short cuts
- Lotto Ticket example
So what makes it possible for you to sol