Class Notes (807,339)
Canada (492,708)
Psychology (2,694)
PS102 (588)
Lecture 8

PS102 Lecture 8: Chapter 8 PS102

3 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
Erin Strahan

Memory Chapter 8 Flashbulb Memories • Some unusual, shocking or tragic events hold a special place in memory • These memories were called Flashbulb memories because the term captures the surprise, illumination & photographic detail that characterize them • Even flashbulb memories have errors What is Memory? • Memory is recalling past events and past learning by means of encoding, storage, and retrieval Three Processes of Memory • Encoding: putting information into a form the brain can understand and getting it into memory • Storage: the process of retaining memories in the brain for later use • Retrieval: recovering stored memories The Role of Attention: Attention: Focus on a stimulus Short-term Memory • Short-term memory is the information that you are focusing on at a given moment • Has a limited capacity (can hold around 5-9 new items at a time) • Rehearsal: the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information Long-Term Memory • Long-term memory: all of the information we have gathered that is available for use, such as acquired skills, people we know, etc. • Spaced rehearsal: facilitates moving working memories into long-term memory. Don’t cram! Studying a little bit over a long period of time is better for memory Two Ways to Encode • Automatic processing: when you automatically remember something with NO effort • Effortful processing: when you have to work to memorize something Contents of Long-Term Memory • Explicit memory: memory that a person can consciously bring to mind o E.g., your address • Implicit memory: memory that a person is not consciously aware of o E.g., typing your password on your phone Contents of Long-Term Memory • Semantic Memory: Long-term memory for meaning • Schemas: knowledge bases that we develop based on prior exposure to similar experiences or other knowledge bases • Episodic Memory • Long-term memory for information tied to a particular time and place, especially memory of the events in a person’s life • Procedural Memory • Long-term memory for actions, skills, operations and conditioned responses Parallel Distributed Model • Theory of memory suggesting that information is represented in the brain as a pattern of activation across entire neural networks How we remember: Rehearsal • Maintenance Rehearsal: repetition of material in order to maintain its availability in memory. • Elaborative Rehearsal: association of new information with already stored knowledge o For example, you may relate it to a movie you’ve seen before o When we put things in our own words, we take in information and store it in our memory • Deep processing: In the encoding of information, the processing of meaning rather than simply the physical or sensory features of a stimulus How we remember: Mnemonics • Strategies and tricks for improving memory, such as the use of a verse or a formula. • Examples include: • Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge (EGBDF), dial “GET RICH” • Basically using any technique to remember broader concepts How We Remember: Chunking • Chunking (We can remember more things when we chunk pieces of information into groups) • Grouping individual bits of data into meaningful units Retrieval: Getting Information out of Memory • Cues for Retrieval • Using Context to Aid Retrieval • Misinformation Effect Cues for Retrieval • Tip-of-the tongue phenomenon: the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by the feeling that it is just out of reach. o See an actor in a movie and try to remember in which movie you’ve seen that actor before Using Context to Aid Retrieval • Context: The physical or emotional backdrop associated with an event • Researchers have found that people, who have learned something in a certain state, will remember more in that same state. Those who are intoxicated while learning how to play pool, will be better at playing pool while being intoxicated. Misinformation Effect •
More Less

Related notes for PS102

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.