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Lecture 1

PS102 Lecture 1: Chapter 1 ps102

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Erin Strahan

Psychology: The study of the mind. The discipline concerned with behaviour and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment. A brief history of psychology • Historically, people have tried to explain events in their natural environment through myths. (Started with Greeks) 20 century approaches Psychoanalysis: Focused on how unconscious processes guide behaviour. Psychoanalysis relies on case studies rather than experiments. Dealt with the concept: we don’t know why we do what we do • Sigmund Freud was a neurologist in Vienna, Austria who was the founder of Psychoanalysis Behaviorism: Focused on observable behaviours rather than abstract mental processes (reinforcement+punishment) Humanism: unconditional positive regard (this theory focused on the potential of individuals and highlighted each person’s subjectivity, consciousness and other special human qualities. By Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Cognitive psychology: the field of psychology studying processes as forms of information processing or the way information is stored and operated in our minds Cultural psychology: how cultural practices shape psychological and behavioural tendencies & influence behaviour Cross-cultural psychology: the study of what is generally or universally true about beings regardless of culture Psychology today: Academic psychology: a branch of psychology focusing on research and instruction in the various areas or fields of study in psychology Applied psychology: the branch of psychology applying psychological principles to practical problems in other fields, such as education, marketing or industry Clinical +counselling psychology: the study of abnormal psychological behaviour and interventions designed to change that behaviour Seven Key Themes in Psychology: • Theme 1: Psychology is empirical (A science) o It uses the scientific method and is based on empirical evidence o Comes from careful observation, experimentation, and measurement • Emily Rosa, uses the scientific method to test the effectiveness of therapeutic touch • Theme 2: Psychology is theoretically diverse o Different theoretical perspectives may interpret behaviour in different ways: o Biological perspective- physiological influences o Learning perspective- environmental influences; imitation
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