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ps102 chapter 12.docx

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Eileen Wood

PS102 March 19 2013h Chapter 12 Motivation: Motivation: o All of the processes that indicate, direct and sustain behaviour o Motives are needs or desires that direct or energize behaviour o Goal Directed o When motives are internal they push us to act – call these drives  thirsty o When motives are external (or outside of us) we call them incentives – they pull or entice us to act Drives: o Directed o Make us driven  make us act How do we direct that behaviour? o Self-regulation: o Homeostatis - stable internal equilibrium - temperature control - reflective, involuntary - supplement, voluntary behaviours The primary drives: Thirst and Hunger - Primary drive stems from unlearned motives to satisfy biological needs - Satisfied through :  reflexive compensatory mechanisms, couples with directed behaviour Thirst: - we continually loose water - Extracuricullar thirst: occurs when body tissues lose fluids, such as when one perspires while exercising - Intracellular thirst: occurs when body cells lose water, such as when one eats salty foods How do we solve the thirst problem? - 1. Antidiuretic Hormone - 2. Volume Receptors - 3. Osmoreceptors - 4. Behvaiour – getting a drink Hunger Drives: - Internal cues motivate hunger by stimulating the hypothalamus in the brain, receptors from stomach and intestines and liver - External cues motivate hunger when we see, smell or taste foods that we like. Also learning Internal Cues: - Receptors in the Brain - Location – Hypothalamus - Receptor for Glucose - Measures amount of glucose available for metabolic consumption - Receptors in Stomach and Intestine - Why stop eating? - Leptin  hormone produced by fat cells Signals from the outside: - Palatability  taste, smell, texture - Learning  schedules for eating – expected meal times, others will influence what we eat Eating problems: Too much or Too little of a good thing - Obesity and belemia and anorexia Obesity: - Definition varies: - 20% above the average weight for a given height - Body Mass Index – BMI- individual’s weight divided by height, squared, -30 or higher obese What causes Obesisty? - genetic Predispositions - Excessive eating/ inadequate exercise - Set Point Theory Obesity: Set point theory: - Normal levels of body fat are between 22 to 26% - Set point: The weight the body maintains when one is not trying to gain or lose weight - Stability point - Settling point: equilibrium idea, but can re-set if long period of change Eating Disorders: - Anorexia nervosa: An overwhelming, irrational fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, compulsive dieting to the point of starvation, and excessive weight loss - Bulimia nervosa: A chronic disorder characterized by repeated and uncontrolled episodes of binge-eating, appears to be of a normal weight, vomiting and laxatives Theories of motivation: - Drive-reduction theory: A need gives rise to an internal state of tension called a drive, and the person or organism is motivated to reduce it. This is based on the idea that we try to maintain homeostasis, which is a balanced internal state - Assumes arousal should = 0 - Good for many functions but not sex - Motivated to be aroused (not zero) - Arousal : a persons state of alertness and mental and physical activation - Arousal Theory: people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal. The optimal level is different for all of us - Stimulus moti
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