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Eileen Wood

Chapter 7 182013 54900 PM Lecture 1 Learning what is learningprocess by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in behaviour of capabilities knowing how how do we learninitially guided by 2 perspectives 1 behaviourism 2 ethologyBehaviourism focused on how organisms learnexamined processes by which experience influences behaviourdiscovered laws of learning that apply to virtually all organismslooks at how humans and animals learnbelieve that there are laws of learning that can describe learning for all creatures treated organism as tabula rasa explained learning society in terms of directly observable eventsavoided unobservable mental states Behaviourism and LearningRespondent classical or PavlovianOperant Skinnerian or instrumental Respondent Conditioningbased on internal response to naturally occurring stimuliex reaction to the taste of lemon warm weather or sun causes us to be relaxedsome things we encounter in the world naturally elicit a response in uswhen we pair things that dont have a value or have a different value with thee naturally occurring pairings the new item will come take on the new meaning Language of Respondent Conditioning four terms UCSUS Unconditioned stimulusstimulus that elicits a reflexive or innate unconditioned response UCR without prior learningUCRUR Unconditioned responsereflexive or innate response elicited by the UCS without prior learning CS Conditioned stimulusstimulus that through association with the UCS comes to elicit a conditional response similar to the original UCR CR Conditioned responseresponse elicited by a conditioned stimulus infant natural response example first born babies tasting sugar unconditioned stimulus that evokes a response happy smilingAnimal Conditioned ResponseCan you make something that is neutral or relatively meaningless become meaningfulex tuning fork and pair it with a steak for a dog as soon as the dog hears the ping of the tuning fork he knows the steak is coming therefore the tuning fork is now valuable and revokes the response of salivatingthe dog is now conditionedPavlovstudied salivary responses in dogsnatural response no learning involvednoted dogs salivated at sounds eg footstepstone Types of CSUCS pairingforward shortdelayCS tone still present when food UCS presentedoptimal learning forward traceCS appears and the bell goes offbest if delay is no more than 23 seconds simultaneous presented at same timelearning it slower backwardpresented afterwardlittle learning conditioned stimulus should serve as a cue BEFORE you present the following Factors that enhance acquisition multiple CSUCS pairingsintense aversive UCS can produce one trial learningforward shortdelay pairingtime interval between onset of CS and onset of UCS is shortLecture 2 Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery Extinction
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