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Carolyn Ensley

Chapter 7 Learning and Conditioning LearningA relatively permanent change in behavior due to experienceBehaviorismApproach that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behaviorConditioningBasic kind of learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and the organisms responsesClassical ConditioningProcess by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related responseInvolved in our positive emotional responses to objects people symbols eventsplacesMost effective when the stimulus to be conditioned precedes the unconditioned stimulusConditioned stimulus becomes a signal for the unconditioned stimulusPavlovs works with salivation in dogs led to discovery of learning principles o Dogs would salivate when near bags of food even when there was no food inside Extinction o The term for the weakeningeventual disappearance of a learned response o Occurs when the CS is no longer paired with the US o May experience spontaneous recovery of response after extinction o Occurs when a response is no longer followed by a reinforcer Higherorder Conditioning o A procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimuluso May be a reason why some words evoke strong emotions eg word birthday is often paired with presentsStimulus Generalization o Tendency to respond to stimulus that resembles one involved in original conditioning o Occurs when a stimulus that resembles the CS elicits the CR Stimulus Discrimination o Tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli o Occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS fails to evoke the CR Learning to Fear o May learn to fear any stimulus that is paired with something that elicits pain surprise or embarrassment o Humans come biologically prepared to learn certain fears faster than others evolutionary basis eg snakes spiders heights o Easier to condition fears to these things then non threatening stimuliUnconditioned Stimulus USStimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning eg foodUnconditioned Response URReflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning eg salivationNeutral StimulusStimulus that does not yet produce a responseRegularly paired with unconditioned stimulusNeutral stimulus becomes conditioned to elicit a responseConditioned Stimulus CSAn initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associate with an unconditioned stimulus eg food bowlConditioned Response CR A response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus occurs after the CS is associated with the US eg salivationThe same as the unconditioned response to the neutral stimulusThe Pen StudyPresented students with Star Wars theme or Indian music and a pen that was either blue or beige After they were asked to choose a pen Star Wars chose the same color pen paired with the music Indian listeners chose a different colored pen Music US evoking positive or negative UR pens became stimulus linked to the same responses This is why pairing of pleasurable music or scenes occurs in advertising The Case of Little AlbertConditioned Little Albert to be afraid of white rats by pairing the neutral stimulus rats with an unconditioned stimulus loud noisesDays later fear had also generalized to other furry objectsCounterconditioningProcess of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned responseBiology and Classical ConditioningHungry participants respond faster to images associated with pleasant food odorsConditioned fear involves receptor in the amygdala o Glutamate blockers inhibit fear response o Glutamate enhances extinctionStartle response may be associated with a gene associated with reactivity in the amygdalaOperant Instrumental ConditioningThe process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so depending on its consequences as opposed to reflexesOrganisms response operates or produces effects on the environment which influence whether the response will occur againPrinciples of Thorndike and BF SkinnerContextLike everything else research in psychology is the result of social and cultural context th In the early 20 century the new psychologists wanted to gain legitimacy in the scientific communityLots of social unrest wars urbanization poor workers in bad conditionsThorndikePut cats in puzzle boxes and watched them escape through trial and errorSuggested that the knowledge was stamped in to the cat when the cat got the food rewardLearning was the result of the consequences of an action o Increased behavior when consequences were positiveBF SkinnerTook Thorndikes ideas one step further Thorndike talked about whether the organism likeddisliked the outcomeSkinner thought this was not necessary you determine likeddisliked from what the organism does
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