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PS102 Ch. 10 Notes.docx

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Carolyn Ensley

Claudia Vanderholst Chapter 10: Memory Reconstructing the Past Memory reflects:  The capacity to retain and retrieve information  The changes in the structures that account for this capacity  Reconstructive processes  the case of H.M. and memory impairment Manufacture of Memory  Many metaphors over time that don’t acknowledge that memory is selective  Bartlett’s studies and reconstructive memory  Told stories with unfamiliar content; when retold the unfamiliar content was replaced with familiar content; the re-teller thought that were ‘remembering’  Reconstruction often involves source misattribution: the inability to distinguish an actual memory of an event from information you learned about the event elsewhere  Flashbulb memory: characterized by surprise, illumination, and seemingly photographic detail  Unusual, shocking, or tragic events may hold a special place in memory  Events seem frozen in time and detail  Errors: many errors in memories of people for 9/11, less likely to make errors when the event happens to you rather than around you  Confabulation: confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you  Belief that you remember something when it never actually happened  False memories can be as stable over time as true ones  Conditions  confabulation is most likely when  You have thought, heard, or told others about the imagined event often (imagination inflation)  The image of the event contains lots of details that make it feel real  The event is easy to imagine  Example: airplane crash in the Netherlands, even though there were never any photos/images shown on the news abut 66% said that they had seen photos because its easy to imagine (we’ve those images before) Memory and the Power of Suggestion  Eyewitness testimony is important, but not always reliable Claudia Vanderholst  Ex. Case of Thomas Sophonow  twice convicted on eyewitness testimony in the 1980s, but later acquitted because of DNA evidence in 2000  Factors that influence eyewitness accuracy  Cross race identification  The wording of questions  Leading questions  Misinformation  Suggestive comments  Children’s testimony – can they be accurate?  Yes, but influenced by the same factors by adults, especially repeated and suggestive questioning  May lead them to say and come to recall events that never happened  Ex. Canadian Case in Martensville, Saskatchewan in 1992  a daycare centre…in the textbook  Leading questions  Children may be asked in such a way that assumes a ‘yes’ answer  “Show me where he touched you?” vs. “Did he touch you?”  Children may be told other children said it happened; this will make them more likely to say it happened In Pursuit of Memory Measuring how memory works  Explicit memory: conscious, intentional recollection of an event or of an item of information  Implicit memory: unconscious retention in memory, as evidenced by the effect of a previous experience or encountered information on current thoughts or actions Explicit Memory  Assessed using recall and recognition tasks  Recall: the ability to retrieve and reproduce from memory previously encountered material  Recognition: the ability to identify previously encountered material (which is usually easier than recall tasks) Implicit Memory  Common method is priming, where a person is exposed to information and later tested to see if this influence behaviour or performance on another task  Also tested using the relearning method  comparing time required to relearn material with initial learning Claudia Vanderholst Models of Memory Information processing models  Cognitive processes involve computer ideas of encoding, storing and retrieving information  Information represented as concepts, propositions, images, or cognitive schemas  Includes the three-box model of memory Parallel distributed processing  Knowledge is represented as connections among thousands of interacting processing units, distributed in a vast network operating in parallel There – Box Model  Three separate memory systems: sensory, short term (STM), long term (LTM)  Sensory register  A memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory information  Specific to each sense (0.5 – 2 seconds duration)  Identification of stimulus base on info in LTM  Information not transferred quickly to STM is lost/forgotten  Short term memory  A limited capacity memory system involved in the retention of information for brief periods (7 +/- 2 units)  Used to hold information retrieved from LTM for temporary use (referred to as working memory)  Working memory: STM + the mental processes that control retrieval of information from LTM & interpret information appropriately for given tasks  Enhance capacity by chunking: creating meaningful units of information, often composed of smaller units  Meaningful and emotional items will transfer quickly to LTM, other require more effort to transfer this material  Long term memory  LTM is the memory system involving long term storage of information  How is it organized?  Semantic categories: a larger grouping into which items similar in some characteristic can be placed (ex. Chair belongs to the category of furniture)  Sound or look (ex. Tip of the tongue (TOT) states)  Procedural memories: memories for the performance of actions or skills (knowing how) Claudia Vanderholst  Declarative memories: memories of facts, rules, concepts, and events (knowing that)  Semantic: general knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts and propositions  Episodic: personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred  From STM to LTM  Serial position effect: the tendency for recall of the first and last items on a list to surpass recall of items in the middle of the list  Primacy effect: recall will be best for items at the beginning of the list  Recency effect: recall
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