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PS102 Ch. 11 Notes.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Carolyn Ensley

Claudia Vanderholst Chapter 11: Emotion, Stress & Health The Nature of Emotion  Emotion: a state of arousal involving:  Physiological changes in the face, brain, and body  Cognitive processes such as interpretation of events  Cultural influences that shape he experience and expression of emotion Emotions and the Body  Primary emotions  Emotions considered to be universal and biologically based  Generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, pride, and contempt  Secondary emotions  Emotions that develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and cultures  Examples: embarrassment, shame, jealousy The Face of Emotion  Evolutionary explanations say that emotions are hard wired and have survival functions  Evidence for the universality of 7 facial expression of emotions  anger, happiness, fear, surprise, disgust, sadness, and contempt  Emotions recognizes cross-culturally  Genuine vs. fake emotions can be distinguished Emotions and Culture  Some emotions are more common in some cultures than others  Anger is not tolerated in the Inuit, threatens communities  Most primary emotion in one remote area is the sadness when a loved one isn’t nearby Functions of Facial Expressions  Facial expressions reflect our internal feelings, but can also influence them  Facial feedback: the process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed  Emotions help us communicate emotional states and signal others (survival value)  Begins in infancy, babies convey emotions and can interpret parental expressions Facial Expressions and Culture  Cultural and social limits to the universal readability of facial expressions: Page 1 of 4 Claudia Vanderholst  People are better at identifying emotions in their own ethnic, national, or regional group  Facial expression can have different meanings within a culture  Facial expressions do not always represent the emotion being experienced The Brain and Emotion  Prefrontal cortex: the most forward part of the frontal lobes of the brain  Left prefrontal cortex: involved in motivation to approach others; damage results in loss of joy  Right prefrontal cortex: involved in withdrawal and escape; damage results in excessive mania and euphoria  Linked to emotional regulation: modify and controlling what we feel  Amygdala: a brain structure involved in the arousal and regulation of emotion and the initial emotional response to sensory information  assess threat and damage results in abnormality in processing fear  Mirror neurons: brain cells that fire when a person or animal observes others carrying out an action, they are involved in empathy, imitation and reading emotions  Mood contagion: a mood spreading from one person to another, as facial expressions of emotion in the first person generate emotions in the other  Nonverbal signal
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