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Lecture 17

PS102 Lecture 17, 18, 19 Chp 13

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Carolyn Ensley

Lecture 17, 18, 19 Chp 13 3/19/2013 10:50:00 AM Chapter 13: Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology:  Developmental psychology: o The study of how people change and grow over time, physically, mentally, and socially.  Socialization: o The process by which children learn the rules and behaviour expected of them by society. Conception to First Year:  Maturation: o The sequential unfolding of genetically influenced behaviour and physical characteristics  Stages of prenatal development: o Germinal:  Begins at conception, sperm unites with egg (fertilized cell called zygote) o Embryonic:  Begins once implantation of embryo has occurred until 8 weeks after conception o Fetal:  Begins at 8 weeks until birth, further development of organs and system in fetus. Prenatal Development:  Harmful influences that can cross the placental barrier: o German measles (rubella) o X-rays or other radiation and toxic substances such as lead o Sexually transmitted diseases o Cigarette smoking o Regular consumption of alcohol (risk of fetal alcohol syndrome) o Drugs other than alcohol. The Infants world:  Many infant physical and perceptual abilities are present at birth o Motor reflexes: automatic behaviours that are necessary for survival o Perceptual abilities for sight, sounds, touch, smell and taste.  Newborn’s visual range of focus reflects about the distance between faces of infant and caregiver.  Can discriminate primary caregiver from others very early by sight, smell, sound. Culture and Maturation:  Many aspects of development depend on cultural customs on how babies are held, touches, fed, and talked to o E.g. infants sleeping with mother vs. in crib  Developmental milestones change quickly with cultural changed in baby-care practices. o E.g. babies no longer crawl since practice of laying babies on stomachs was risky. Attachment:  Attachment theory: (Bowlby) o Describes the relatively stable pattern of relationships that one forms from birth to death  Attachment begins with contact comfort: o The innate pleasure derived from closer physical contact; basis of infants first attachment.  Harlow’s attachment study: o Infant monkey spent more time with soft cuddly “mother” than the “mother” with food. o Contact comfort was preferred over food.  Once attached, infants may show separation anxiety if primary caregiver leaves. o Distress that most children develop, at about 6-8 months of age, when their primary caregivers temporarily leave them with strangers.  Attachment bonds studied through strange situation test (Ainsworth) o Three categories of attachments based on reactions:  Secure, avoidant, anxious/ambivalent. Insecure Attachments:  Ainsworth believed that secure attachment depended on maternal sensitivity, but it did not consider o Children who attach to many adults may not panic when their mothers leave (Strange Situation) because they are comfortable with strangers. o Most children develop secure attachment despite differences in child- raring practices. o Time spent on daycare has no effect on the security of the child’s attachment.  Factors that promote insecure attachment: o Abandonment and deprivation in the first two years of life. o Parenting that is abusive, neglectful, or erratic because the parent is chronically irresponsible or depressed. o The child’s own genetically influenced temperament. o Stressful circumstances in the child’s family. Cognitive development:  One milestone of cognitive development is language acquisition  Begins in the first few months (responsive to pitch, intensity, sound) o Parentese:  Adult use of baby talk, pitch is higher and more varied than usual, exaggerated intonation, emphasis on vowels.  Continues in rapid progression Language Development:  Milestones: o 6 months—1year: babbling (ba-ba) o 10 months: recognize same word spoken by different people o 12 months: begin to name things and gesture o 18 months—2years: telegraphic speech:  2—3 word combination o 2 years: learn syntax o 6 years: vocabulary of 8000—14,000 words. Development of thinking:  according to Piaget, cognitive development consists of mental adaptations to new observations and experiences.  Two forms of adaptation: o Assimilation:  The process of absorbing new information into existing cognitive structures  Use what they already know and use the cognitive structure that they already have o Accommodation:  The process of modifying existing cognitive structures in response to experiences.  Use a different cognitive structure because they can’t use their own anymore. Stages of Cognitive Development:  Sensorimotor Stage: (birth to age 2) o Learning through concrete actions o Coordinates sensory information with bodily movement o Major accomplishment is object permanence  The understanding that an object continues to exist even when you cannot see or touch it.  Preoperational stage (ages 2-7) o Focused on limitations in children’s thinking.  Children lack ability to engage in mental operations.  Engaging in egocentric thinking (inability to take another persons perspective)  Cannot grasp concept of conservation (understanding that physical properties of objects can remain the same even when their form or appearance change)  Concrete Operations stage (ages 7-12) o Earlier limitations overcome but primarily with concrete information o Continue to make errors in reasoning about abstract concepts o Understand principles of conservation, reversibility, cause and effect.  Formal operation Stage: (ages 12-adult) o Teenagers become capable of abstract reasoning. o Ideas/concepts can be compared and classified just like objects. o Can formulate hypotheses, test ideas, search for answers to solve problems. Current views on Cognitive development:  Cognitive abilities develop in continuous, overlapping waves rather than discrete stages.  Preschoolers are not as egocentric as Piaget thought (theory of mind for example)  Children, even infants, reveal cognitive abilities much earlier than Piaget believed possible.  Cognitive development is influenced by a child’s culture. Moral Development:  Children’s ability to understand right from wrong (reasoning about moral dilemmas) evolves with cognitive abilities (Kohlberg)  Methods used to enforce moral standards: o Power assertion:  Parent uses punishment and authority to correct child’s misbehaviour. o Induction:  Parent appeals to child’s own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting the child’s misbehaviour  One of the most important social-emotional skills children need to acquire is self-regulation o The ability to suppress their initial wish to do something in favour of doing something else that is not as much fun o Predicts ability to delay gratification, control negative emotions, pay attention to task at hand, and do well in school .  Self regulation is important to the development of conscience. Gender development:  Gender identity: o The fundamental sense of being male or female. o Independent of whether a person conforms to the social and cultural rules of gender.  Gender typing: o The process by which children learn the abilities, interests, and behaviours associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture. Complexity and Gender:  Complexity evident in cases that do not fit categories of male and female. o Intersex conditions:  Condition occurring where chromosomal or hormonal anomalies cause a child to be brown with ambiguous genitals or genitals that conflict with chromosomes.
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