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Lecture 20

PS102 Lecture 20, 21, 22 Chp 12

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Carolyn Ensley

Lecture 20, 21, 22 Chp 12 3/28/2013 9:56:00 AM Motivation: Motivation:  An inferred process within a person or animal that causes movement either toward a goal or a way from an unpleasant situation.  Eating, sex, work. Motivation toward and away:  A person gets married, what is their motivation o to be with a person they love o to get away from their parents o to escape poverty. o To move to a new country o To have children  Same action can have many different causes. Influences on Motivation:  Motivation to reach goals may vary depending on the source: o Intrinsic motivation:  The pursuit of an activity for its own sake and the pleasure it brings  Marrying for love o Extrinsic motivation:  The pursuit of an activity for external rewards, such as money or fame  Marrying for money. Drives:  Study of motivation dominated by focus on drives: biology urges (acquire food and water, to have sec, to seek novelty, and to avoid cold and pain)  But motivation is more than just biological drives.  People are motivated to eat to survive, but will go on hunger strikes. o Our motivation is more complex than just eating, mating, and avoiding harm.  We are conscious, we plan, we have beliefs, these all can affect whether we listen to our drives or not Motives to Eat:  The biology of Weight: o Research does not support the idea that people who are overweight are emotionally disturbed. o Heaviness not always caused by over eating o Biological mechanisms regulate your body weight are influences by genetics. Set Point:  Genetically influences weight for an individual o Maintained by biological mechanisms that regulate food intake, fat reserves, and metabolism  Varies about 10% in either direction  Associated with high levels of heritability  Related to genetically programmed basal metabolism rate (how fast you can burn calories) Obesity:  Genes are involved in some types of obesity o E.g., Inuit of the Canadian Arctic  Mutations in the ob gene may cause obesity in some individuals o Ob genes causes fat cells to secure protein called leptin that acts on the hypothalamus and helps to regulate appetite. o Levels of leptin most critical in early life as sets the brain chemistry involved with eating. The Overweight Debate:  Prevalence of obesity in Canada o Approximately 26% of women and 35% of men o Has been increasing over the years o Can’t be accounted for solely by genetics  It is weight or fitness? o Many researchers believe that individuals who are overweight and physically fit are actually healthier than individuals who are sedentary and thin o Lack of fitness related to greater health risks. Environmental influences on weight:  Increased abundance of fast food  Consumption of high-calorie soft drinks  Decline of exercise and other expenditures of energy  Increased portion sizes of food and drink.  Abundance of highly varied foods. Culture of Consumption:  Eating habits and activity levels shaped by cultural customs and standards of ideal body. o Fat may be a sign of health and affluence in men; sexual desirability in women. o English Canadians hold negative attitudes towards obese people. Culture and the Ideal Body:  Cultural ideals for women have been getting thinner, with large breasts but no hips.  Cultural ideals for men are to have strong, muscular bodies.  Changed in body norms shift with gender and social roles (e.g., woman’s role being home or work?)  Differences in weight satisfaction between men and women influence weight norms Thin isn’t ”in” everywhere:  Spain: changing clothing sizing to fit bigger women; women are larger there than in 1975  France: looking to fine people or businesses than encourage extreme thinness  Tonga: 90% of people are overweight; advertise as travel destination if you want to “feel skinny”  Nigeria and Mauretania both have programs for “fattening” women who are too thin. Eating Disorders (problems with motives for eating)  Anorexia: o An eating disorder characterized by fear of being fat, a distorted body image, radically reduced consumption of food, and emaciation.  Bulimia: o An eating disorder characterized by episodes of excessive eating (binging) followed by forced vomiting or use of laxatives (purging) Motives to love:  Passionate (romantic) love: o Love characterized by a whirlwind of intense emotions and sexual passion o It is the stuff of crushes, infatuations, “love at first sight”, and the early stage of love affairs.  Companionate love: o Love characterized by affection and trust.  Biology of Love: o Neurological origins of love begin in infancy with attachment relationships with mother. o Key neurotransmitters and hormones involved in pleasure and reward involved in mother-baby and adult bonds  E.g., oxytocin and endorphins o Similar patterns of neurological activation in the brain.  Psychology of Love: o Proximity effect:  The people who are nearest to you geographically are most likely to be dearest to you too. o Similarity effect:  Similarity in looks, attitudes, beliefs, values, personality, and interest, is attractive to human beings.  We tend to choose friends and loved ones who are most like us.  Attachment Theory of Love: o Peoples attachment styles as adults derive in large part from how their parents cared for them.  Secure:  Rarely jealous, compassionate, helpful (64%)  Avoidant:  Distrust others and avoid intimate attachments (25%)  Anxious:  Agitate in relationships, clingy, fear partners will leave them (11%) Attachment Style and Parents:  Secure report warm close relationships  Avoidant describe parents in almost entirely negative terms  Anxious are ambivalent about their parents; describes as both harsh and kind. Attachment and Romance:  Avoidant are resistant to change, don’t have enough trust.  Anxious and avoidant can find long term partners if the partner is securely attached.  One note, avoidant style often found in child molesters than in the general population.  Personality of both parent and child probably determines some attachment style. Gender, Culture, and Love:  Men and women respond similarly to: o Love at first sight, passionate love, companionate love, unrequited love, being securely or insecurely attached, or suffering when a relationships ends.  Men and women do differ in how they express love o Males more likely to express love in actions. o Women more likely to express love in words. The Role of Culture:  Differences are part of culture  Western men were more romantic and women more practical when choosing a partner o Women married a standard of living.  As women entered the workforce this changed. o Generally only marry for practical reasons when there is money involved (e.g. arranged marriage in countries with dowry systems) Motives for sex:  Human sexuality influenced by biological, psychological, and cultural factors o Canadian culture relatively sexually active o Canadians have sex at earlier ages than teens in other countries. The Sex Drive:  Men display higher rates of almost every kind of sexual behaviour.  Hormones and brain circuits involved in sexual behaviour differ between sexes. o Males: wiring for sec overlaps with dominance and aggression; o Females: wiring for sex overlaps with nurturance.  Other researchers argue that differences in sexuality stem form roles and expectations.  So the debate is “sex drive: vs. “motives for sex” The Psychology of Desire:  Six prim
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