Lecture 20, 21, 22 Chp 12 3/28/2013 9:56:00 AM
An inferred process within a person or animal that causes movement either
toward a goal or a way from an unpleasant situation.
Eating, sex, work.
Motivation toward and away:
A person gets married, what is their motivation
o to be with a person they love
o to get away from their parents
o to escape poverty.
o To move to a new country
o To have children
Same action can have many different causes.
Influences on Motivation:
Motivation to reach goals may vary depending on the source:
o Intrinsic motivation:
The pursuit of an activity for its own sake and the pleasure it
Marrying for love
o Extrinsic motivation:
The pursuit of an activity for external rewards, such as money or
Marrying for money.
Study of motivation dominated by focus on drives: biology urges (acquire food
and water, to have sec, to seek novelty, and to avoid cold and pain)
But motivation is more than just biological drives.
People are motivated to eat to survive, but will go on hunger strikes.
o Our motivation is more complex than just eating, mating, and avoiding
We are conscious, we plan, we have beliefs, these all can affect whether we listen
to our drives or not Motives to Eat:
The biology of Weight:
o Research does not support the idea that people who are overweight are
o Heaviness not always caused by over eating
o Biological mechanisms regulate your body weight are influences by
Genetically influences weight for an individual
o Maintained by biological mechanisms that regulate food intake, fat
reserves, and metabolism
Varies about 10% in either direction
Associated with high levels of heritability
Related to genetically programmed basal metabolism rate (how fast you can
Genes are involved in some types of obesity
o E.g., Inuit of the Canadian Arctic
Mutations in the ob gene may cause obesity in some individuals
o Ob genes causes fat cells to secure protein called leptin that acts on the
hypothalamus and helps to regulate appetite.
o Levels of leptin most critical in early life as sets the brain chemistry
involved with eating.
The Overweight Debate:
Prevalence of obesity in Canada
o Approximately 26% of women and 35% of men
o Has been increasing over the years
o Can’t be accounted for solely by genetics
It is weight or fitness?
o Many researchers believe that individuals who are overweight and
physically fit are actually healthier than individuals who are sedentary
and thin o Lack of fitness related to greater health risks.
Environmental influences on weight:
Increased abundance of fast food
Consumption of high-calorie soft drinks
Decline of exercise and other expenditures of energy
Increased portion sizes of food and drink.
Abundance of highly varied foods.
Culture of Consumption:
Eating habits and activity levels shaped by cultural customs and standards of
o Fat may be a sign of health and affluence in men; sexual desirability in
o English Canadians hold negative attitudes towards obese people.
Culture and the Ideal Body:
Cultural ideals for women have been getting thinner, with large breasts but no
Cultural ideals for men are to have strong, muscular bodies.
Changed in body norms shift with gender and social roles (e.g., woman’s role
being home or work?)
Differences in weight satisfaction between men and women influence weight
Thin isn’t ”in” everywhere:
Spain: changing clothing sizing to fit bigger women; women are larger there than
France: looking to fine people or businesses than encourage extreme thinness
Tonga: 90% of people are overweight; advertise as travel destination if you want
to “feel skinny”
Nigeria and Mauretania both have programs for “fattening” women who are too
Eating Disorders (problems with motives for eating)
Anorexia: o An eating disorder characterized by fear of being fat, a distorted body
image, radically reduced consumption of food, and emaciation.
o An eating disorder characterized by episodes of excessive eating
(binging) followed by forced vomiting or use of laxatives (purging)
Motives to love:
Passionate (romantic) love:
o Love characterized by a whirlwind of intense emotions and sexual
o It is the stuff of crushes, infatuations, “love at first sight”, and the early
stage of love affairs.
o Love characterized by affection and trust.
Biology of Love:
o Neurological origins of love begin in infancy with attachment
relationships with mother.
o Key neurotransmitters and hormones involved in pleasure and reward
involved in mother-baby and adult bonds
E.g., oxytocin and endorphins
o Similar patterns of neurological activation in the brain.
Psychology of Love:
o Proximity effect:
The people who are nearest to you geographically are most likely
to be dearest to you too.
o Similarity effect:
Similarity in looks, attitudes, beliefs, values, personality, and
interest, is attractive to human beings.
We tend to choose friends and loved ones who are most
Attachment Theory of Love:
o Peoples attachment styles as adults derive in large part from how their
parents cared for them.
Rarely jealous, compassionate, helpful (64%)
Avoidant: Distrust others and avoid intimate attachments (25%)
Agitate in relationships, clingy, fear partners will leave
Attachment Style and Parents:
Secure report warm close relationships
Avoidant describe parents in almost entirely negative terms
Anxious are ambivalent about their parents; describes as both harsh and kind.
Attachment and Romance:
Avoidant are resistant to change, don’t have enough trust.
Anxious and avoidant can find long term partners if the partner is securely
One note, avoidant style often found in child molesters than in the general
Personality of both parent and child probably determines some attachment
Gender, Culture, and Love:
Men and women respond similarly to:
o Love at first sight, passionate love, companionate love, unrequited love,
being securely or insecurely attached, or suffering when a relationships
Men and women do differ in how they express love
o Males more likely to express love in actions.
o Women more likely to express love in words.
The Role of Culture:
Differences are part of culture
Western men were more romantic and women more practical when choosing a
o Women married a standard of living.
As women entered the workforce this changed.
o Generally only marry for practical reasons when there is money involved
(e.g. arranged marriage in countries with dowry systems) Motives for sex:
Human sexuality influenced by biological, psychological, and cultural factors
o Canadian culture relatively sexually active
o Canadians have sex at earlier ages than teens in other countries.
The Sex Drive:
Men display higher rates of almost every kind of sexual behaviour.
Hormones and brain circuits involved in sexual behaviour differ between sexes.
o Males: wiring for sec overlaps with dominance and aggression;
o Females: wiring for sex overlaps with nurturance.
Other researchers argue that differences in sexuality stem form roles and
So the debate is “sex drive: vs. “motives for sex”
The Psychology of Desire: