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Carolyn Ensley

 Learning and Conditioning  Learning- a relatively permanent change in behaviour (or behavioural potential) due to experience  Behaviourism- approach that emphasizes study of observable behaviour and role of the environment as a determinant of behaviour  Conditioning- basic kind of learning that involves associations b/w environmental stimuli and organism‟s response  Classical Conditioning  - Pavlov‟s works with salivation in dogs leg to discovery of learning principles  - process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response  unconditioned stimulus (US)- stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning (e.g. food)  conditioned stimulus (CS)- initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g. food bowl)  unconditioned response (UR)- reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning (e.g. salvation)  conditioned response (CR)- response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; occurs after CS is associated with the US ; same as US to neutral stimulus  drooling because of food (UR) or drool because of a bell (CR)  neutral stimulus- stimulus that does not yet produce a response  regularly paired with unconditioned stimulus  neutral stimulus becomes “conditioned” to elicit a response  extinction- a conditioned response doesn‟t last forever  term for the weakening & eventual disappearance of a learning response  occurs when the CS is no longer paired with the US  may experience spontaneous recovery of response after extinction  higher-order conditioning- procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus  may be reason why some words evoke strong emotion  words are neutral stimuli  birthday can evoke positive response in child bc paired w/ presents  may also explain prejudices  pair words with negative meaning w/ name for a group of people and eventually a negative response to group of people may be evoked  stimulus generalization- tendency to respond to stimulus that resembles one involved in original conditioning  occurs when a stimulus that resembles CS elicits the CR  stimulus discrimination- tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli  occurs when stimulus similar to CS fails to evoke CR  - classical conditioning most effective when stimulus to be conditioned precede unconditioned stimulus  conditioned stimulus becomes a signal for unconditioned stimulus  to becomes a CS, a neutral stimulus must reliably signal/predict Classical conditioning in real life  learning to like: classical conditioning involved in our positive emotional responses to objects, people, symbols, events, places  Pen Study (Gorn 1892)  Presented students with Star Wars theme or Indian music and a pen that was either blue/beige  After they were asked to choose a pen; Star Wars chose same color pen paired with the music, Indian listeners chose a different pen colour  Music US evoking positive/negative UR; pens became stimuli linked to same responses  This is why pairing of pleasurable music/scenes occurs in advertising  Learning to Fear- may learn to fear any stimulus that is pained with something that elicits pain, surprise, or embarrassment  Humans become biologically “prepared” to learn certain fears faster than others (evolutionary basis)  Eg. Snakes, spiders, heights  Easier to condition fears to these things then non threatening stimuli  Phobias are exaggerated & unrealistic fear  Case of Little Albert (classic Watson & Rayner 1920)  Conditioned “Little Albert” ( to be afraid of white rats by pairing neutral stimulus (rats
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