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Lecture 6

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Carolyn Ensley

 Iclicker questions:  Which would be an example of a "declarative" memory  Recalling the organization of keys on a keyboard  Remembering where you were when you first saw a keyboard  Long Term Memory (LTM):  LTM is the memory system involving long-term storage of info  How is info organized?  Semantic Categories  Larger grouping where items w/ similar characteristics can be placed (i.e. chair is furniture category)  Sound or Look  e.g. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states  Contents of LTM  Procedural Memories: memories for the performance of actions or skills ("knowing how")  Implicit (can't talk about it)  Declarative Memories: memories of facts, rules, concepts, and events ("knowing that")  Explicit (can talk about it)  Semantic: general knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts, and propositions  Episodic: personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred  From STM to LTM  Serial Position Effect  The tendency for recall of the first and last items on a list to surpass recall of items in the middle of the list  Primary effect: recall will be best for items at beginning of list  Recency Effect: recall will be best for items at end of list  The Biology of Memory  Forming a memory involves chemical and structural changes at the level of the neuron  Long-Term Potentiation: a long-lasting increase in the strength of synaptic responsiveness  Reflects Hebbian learning ideas; may involve glutamate  Linked to memory consolidation: process by which synaptic changes associated w/ recently stored memories become durable and stable, causing memory to be more reliable  Absence of glutamate = absence of learning  Biology and Memory  In STM, changes within neurons temporarily alter neuron's ability to release transmitters  In LTM, long-term potentiation or long-lasting increase in strength of synaptic responsiveness occurs  Long-term potentiation --> allows us to
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