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Psychology 102

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Carolyn Ensley

o This is why pairing of pleasurable music or scenes occurs in advertising Learning to fear  May learn to fear any stimulus that is paired with something that elicits pain, surprise or embarrassment  Humans come biologically prepared to learn certain fears faster than others (evolutionary basis) example: snakes, spiders, heights  Easier to condition fears to these things then non threatening stimuli  Phobias: an exaggerated unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity, or object  Example o The Case of Peter  Jones (1924) and Watson demonstrated that fears can also be unlearned (e.g Peter‟s fear of rabbits)  Counterconditioning: process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response o The Case of Little Albert  Classic Watson and Rayner (1920) experiment  Conditioned “little Albert” to be afraid of white rats by pairing the neutral stimulus (rats) with an unconditioned stimulus (loud noises)  Days later, fear had also generalized to other furry objects Accounting for Taste  Classical conditioning can explain how we learn to like and dislike many foods and odours  Researchers have taught animals to dislike foods/odours by pairing them with drugs that cause nausea or other unpleasant symptoms  Example: Seligman and dislike of Béarnaise sauce, the “Garcia effect” and biological preparedness Original Reflexes
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